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The National Parks: 
Shaping the System 



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Of GEORGIA LIBRARIES 



The National Parks: 
Shaping the System 



Produced by the 
Division of Publications 
National Park Service 



U.S. Department of the, Interior 
Washington, D.C. 1985 



Using This Book 

This book tells the story of the evolution of the U.S. National Park 
System, the first of its kind in the world. In Part 1, Bureau Historian 
Barry Mackintosh pays tribute to an earlier history, Family Tree, and 
discusses the complexity of System origins and designations. In Part 
2, Shaping the System, he chronicles the step-by-step growth of the 
System from its beginnings to 1984. Part 3 contains maps depicting 
the System's growth through the years and its extent today and a 
listing of areas outside but affiliated with the System. 



Abbreviations Used in the Tables in this Book 

NB NM 

National Battlefield National Monument 

NBP NMem 

National Battlefield Park National Memorial 

NBS NMP 

National Battlefield Site National Military Park 

NHP NP 

National Historical Park National Park 

NHS NPres 

National Historic Site National Preserve 

NL NR 

National Lakeshore National River 



NRA 

National Recreation Area 

NS 

National Seashore 

NSR 

National Scenic Riverway 

NST 

National Scenic Trail 

WSR 

Wild and Scenic River 



Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data 
Mackintosh, Barry. 
The national parks. 



Includes index. 

Supt. of Docs, no.: I 29.2:P23/3 

1. United States. National Park Service — History. 2. National parks 

and reserves— United States— History. I. United States. National Park 

Service. Division of Publications. II. Title. 

SB482.A4M24 1984 353.008'632'09 84-600068 



Part 1 Introduction 4 

A Few Words About This Book 6 

Part 2 Shaping the System 8 

By Barry Mackintosh 

Before the National Park Service 10 

The Early Years, 1916 to 1933 18 

The Reorganization of 1933 24 

From the Depression to Mission 66, 1933 to 

1963 42 

The Hartzog Years, 1964 to 1972 62 

Rounding Out the System, 1973 to 1984 80 

Ideals Into Reality 96 

Part 3 Appendix 100 

Affiliated Areas 102 

Maps: 

The National Park System 103 

Growth of the National Park System 107 

Index 110 



Introduction 




A Few Words 
About this Book 



When did the National Park System begin? The usual response is 
1872, when the first national park, Yellowstone, was established. Yet 
certain elements later added to the System— the parks of the Nation's 
Capital, Hot Springs, and parts of Yosemite — predate Yellowstone as 
parklands. And there was no real "system" of parks until a bureau, 
the National Park Service, was created in 1916 to coordinate the 
administration of those areas previously reserved under the Depart- 
ment of the Interior's jurisdiction. 

With the establishment of a systematic park administration, the 
way was paved for annexation of comparable areas from other 
agencies. Efforts toward a fully comprehensive and unified National 
Park System were accelerated in a 1933 Government reorganization, 
whereby the Service acquired the national monuments, military 
parks, and certain other areas of the War Department, the national 
monuments of the Department of Agriculture, and the National 
Capital Parks. With the major elements of today's System thus 
brought together, the Service became the primary Federal entity 
preserving the Nation's most significant natural and cultural resources. 

The following account of this evolution is an extensively revised 
edition of Ronald F. Lee's Family Tree of the National Park System 
(Eastern National Park and Monument Association, 1972). That book 
took the story to 1972, the centennial year of Yellowstone's estab- 
lishment. Its orientation and reference value to Park Service personnel 
and others inspired requests for an updating to encompass the major 
expansion of the System — a doubling of the lands— since that time. 

Yet more than just a new chapter was needed. Family Tree was 
organized around the three management categories— natural, histor- 
ical, recreational — to which virtually all parks were formally assigned 
beginning in 1964. Because the assignment of each area to a single 
management category failed to recognize the diverse resources many 
possessed, this categorization was officially discontinued in 1977. The 
present account refers to natural, historical, and recreational parks 
only in an informal sense, consistent with current practice. 

The multiplicity of designations applied to the individual units of 
the System is a recurring irritant to those who value logic and con- 
sistency. Essentially similar historic battlefields are variously titled 



Barry Mackintosh 

Bureau Historian, National Park Service 



national military parks, national battlefields, and national battlefield 
parks; one is a national battlefield site. Some historic fortifications 
are national historic sites, others are national monuments. Con- 
versely, the same national monument designation is attached to areas 
as vast as Death Valley and as small as Castle Clinton. 

These 20-odd labels are rooted in the legislative and administrative 
history of the System, with some in greater vogue at certain times 
than others. Some are fairly descriptive of the areas so designated 
while others are not. Some, such as national recreation areas and 
national preserves, generally denote more permissive development or 
use than others. And while national parks are usually the largest and 
finest natural areas, and while national historic sites are all small 
cultural units, exceptions in many categories render it impossible to 
rank or evaluate park areas by their labels alone. 

The dates used for park areas are generally those of the earliest 
laws, executive proclamations, departmental orders, or other instru- 
ments authorizing, establishing, or otherwise creating them. In some 
cases, these actions occurred before the areas were put under 
National Park Service administration. Such factors demonstrate why 
a straightforward answer to the question of origins is difficult. 

In an act approved August 18, 1970, Congress defined the National 
Park System as including "any area of land and water now or 
hereafter administered by the Secretary of the Interior through the 
National Park Service for park, monument, historic, parkway, recrea- 
tional, or other purposes." This legal definition excludes a number of 
national historic sites and other areas not owned or administered by 
the Service. These are now administratively classed as "affiliated 
areas" and are listed in the Appendix. 

Ronald Lee's Family Tree, with its chronological listing of all park 
additions and concise elaboration of significant examples, develop- 
ments, and trends, was for more than a decade the single best 
treatment of when and how the National Park System evolved. This 
book builds on Family Tree, documenting the major changes that 
occurred in the 1970s and early 1980s. Like that source, this work 
strives to provide a handy reference to those concerned with the 
shaping of the National Park System. 



Part 2 








ing the System 







Before 

the National Park Service 



National Parks, 1872-1916 Yellowstone National Park, estab- 
lished March 1, 1872, was the first area so designated anywhere. John 
Ise, historian of national park policy, called the Yellowstone Act "so 
dramatic a departure from the general public land policy of Con- 
gress, it seems almost a miracle. " Although California's Yosemite 
State Park, established by Federal cession eight years earlier to 
protect Yosemite Valley and the Mariposa Big Tree Grove, was an 
important conservation milestone, and although Hot Springs Reser- 
vation dated from 1832, Yellowstone was the first unqualified embod- 
iment of the national park idea— the world's premier example of 
large-scale natural preservation for all the people. Since then the idea 
has been adopted around the world. 

The remarkable Yellowstone Act withdrew some two million acres 
of public land in Wyoming and Montana territories from settlement, 
occupancy, or sale and dedicated it ki as a public park or pleasuring- 
ground for the benefit and enjoyment of the people." The law also 
provided for preservation of all timber, mineral deposits, natural 
curiosities, and wonders within the park "in their natural condition." 
The twin purposes of preservation and public enjoyment, so suscep- 
tible to conflict yet so eloquently reaffirmed by Congress when the 
National Park Service was created in 1916, were there from the 
beginning. 

After Yellowstone's establishment, the national park idea was 
attacked by special interests, stoutly defended by friends in Congress, 
and successively refined and confirmed. Fourteen more national 
parks were established in the West between 1872 and 1916, most of 
them closely following the Yellowstone prototype. One, Mackinac 
Island National Park, established three years after Yellowstone, had a 
short life, being ceded to Michigan in 1895. 

Each of these national parks has its own history. Collectively, this 
history is dotted with such important names in conservation as 
Frederick Law Olmsted, Cornelius Hedges, Nathaniel P. Langford, 
Ferdinand V. Hayden, John Muir, William Gladstone Steel, George 
Bird Grinnell, J. Horace McFarland, secretaries of the Interior from 
Carl Schurz to Franklin K. Lane, many members of Congress, 
including Rep. John Fletcher Lacy of Iowa and Sen. George G. Vest 



10 



of Missouri, and President Theodore Roosevelt. 

The next great scenic national parks after Yellowstone — Sequoia, 
General Grant, and Yosemite, all in California— were not established 
until 1890, 18 years later. General Grant and Yosemite were set aside 
as "reserved forest lands," but like Sequoia they were modeled after 
Yellowstone and named national parks by the Secretary of the 
Interior. Then in the Forest Reserve Act of 1891, Congress separated 
the idea of forest conservation from the national park idea by 
authorizing the President to proclaim permanent forest reserves on 
the public domain. 

This is the fork in the road beyond which national parks and 
national forests proceed separately. Within 16 years, Presidents 
Grover Cleveland, William McKinley, and particularly Theodore 
Roosevelt proclaimed 159 national forests containing more than 150 
million acres. By 1916 Presidents William Howard Taft and Woodrow 
Wilson had added another 26 million acres. During this same period 
each new national park had to be authorized by an individual act of 
Congress, usually after years of promotional effort. Nevertheless by 
1916, 11 more parks, including such superlative areas as Mount 
Rainier in Washington, Crater Lake in Oregon, Glacier in Montana, 
Rocky Mountain and Mesa Verde in Colorado, and Hawaii on the 
islands of Maui and Hawaii, had been added and Mackinac Island 
had been divested, giving the National Park Service 14 national parks 
comprising some 4,750,000 acres upon its creation. 

Establishment of these first national parks reflected in part 
changing American attitudes toward nature. The old colonial and 
pioneering emphasis on rapid exploitation of seemingly inexhaustible 
resources was at last giving way, among some influential Americans, 
to a new awareness of the beauty and wonder of nature. In Nature 
and the American (University of California, 1957), Hans Huth 
presented a fascinating account of the changing viewpoints toward 
nature in the United States that preceded and accompanied the rise 
of the conservation movement. America's leadership in national 
parks is further explained by Roderick Nash in The American 
Invention of National Parks" [American Quarterly. Fall 1970). He 
credits four principal factors: our unique experience with nature on 



11 



the American continent, our democratic ideals, our vast public 
domain, and our affluent society. 

The movement that resulted in making Yellowstone the world's 
first national park had its specific origins in the discoveries of the 
Folsom-Cook Expedition of 1869, the Washburn-Langford-Doane 
Expedition of 1870, and the Hayden Expedition of 1871. What might 
have befallen these discoveries was suggested in a diary account of 
the 1870 expedition published years later by Nathaniel P. Langford: 
"Last night, and also this morning in camp, the entire party had a 
rather unusual discussion. The proposition was made by some 
member that we utilize the result of our exploration by taking up 
quarter sections of land at the most prominent points of interest, and 
a general discussion followed. One member of our party suggested 
that if there could be secured by pre-emption a good title to two or 
three quarter sections of land opposite the lower fall of the Yellow- 
stone and extending down the river along the canyon, they would 
eventually become a source of great profit to the owners. Another 
member of the party thought that it would be more desirable to take 
up a quarter section of land at the Upper Geyser Basin, for the reason 
that that locality could be more easily reached by tourists and 
pleasure seekers. A third suggestion was that each member of the 
party pre-empt a claim, and in order that no one should have an 
advantage over the others, the whole should be thrown into a 
common pool for the benefit of the entire party. 

"Mr. [Cornelius) Hedges then said that he did not approve of any of 
these plans— that there ought to be no private ownership of any 
portion of that region, but that the whole of it ought to be set apart as 
a great National Park, and that each one of us ought to make an effort 
to have this accomplished." 

Although the national park idea predated the occasion described 
(with literary license) by Langford, his story vividly portrays its 
essence: the placement of public good above private gain. Fortu- 
nately, the consensus reached by the explorers and others advocating 
public protection of Yellowstone's wonders won sufficient political 
support to become written into law. The first national park stands as 
an enduring symbol of enlightened governmental action "for the 
benefit and enjoyment of the people." 

When establishment of the National Park Service came under 
consideration in Congress in 1916, J. Horace McFarland, president of 
the American Civic Association and an outstanding conservationist, 
expressed the views of many in his testimony before the House Public 
Lands Committee: "The parks are the Nation's pleasure grounds and 
the Nation's restoring places, recreation grounds. . . . The national 



12 



parks, Mr. Chairman, are an American idea; it is one thing we have 
that has not been imported. . . . Each one of these national parks in 
America is the result of some great man's thought of service to his 
fellow citizens. These parks did not just happen; they came about 
because earnest men and women became violently excited at the 
possibility of these great assets passing from public control. . . . These 
great parks are, in the highest degree, as they stand today, a sheer 
expression of democracy, the separation of these lands from the 
public domain, to be held for the public, instead of being opened to 
private settlement. " 

National Monuments, 1906-1916 While the early national parks 
were being established, a separate movement got under way to 
protect the magnificent cliff dwellings, pueblo ruins, and early 
missions discovered by cowboys, army officers, ethnologists, and 
other explorers on the vast public lands of the Southwest. They were 
especially threatened by plunder and destruction at the hands of pot 
hunters and vandals. The effort to secure protective legislation began 
among historically minded scientists and civic leaders in Boston and 
spread to similar circles in Washington, New York, Denver, Santa Fe, 
and other places during the 1880s and 1890s. In 1889 Congress 
authorized the President to reserve from settlement or sale the land 
on which the Casa Grande ruin was situated in Arizona. President 
Benjamin Harrison proclaimed the Casa Grande Ruin Reservation 
three years later. In 1904, at the request of the General Land Office, 
Dr. Edgar Lee Hewett made a comprehensive review of Indian 
antiquities on Federal land in Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and 
Utah. After consultation with scientists in the Smithsonian's Bureau 
of American Ethnology and elsewhere, he recommended specific 
sites for preservation. With important help from Rep. John F. Lacey 
and Sen. Henry Cabot Lodge, an Antiquities Act was passed in 1906 
to help protect such areas and structures. 

The act authorized the President "to declare by public proclama- 
tion historic landmarks, historic and prehistoric structures, and other 
objects of historic or scientific interest'' situated on lands owned or 
controlled by the United States Government to be national monu- 
ments. It also prohibited excavation or appropriation of antiquities 
on Federal lands without a permit. Unfortunately the act made no 
provision for surveys such as that undertaken by Hewett. The 
Department of the Interior, along with the departments of Agricul- 
ture and War which also had jurisdiction over eligible sites and 
structures, therefore relied for proposals upon a variety of sources: 
recommendations from individual scientists and Government offi- 



13 



cials exploring the West, accidental discoveries by cowboys and 
prospectors, offers by private citizens of donations of land suitable 
for monument designation, and projects conceived by local citizens 
and sponsored by members of Congress. 

The first national monument, proclaimed by President Theodore 
Roosevelt some three months after he signed the Antiquities Act, was 
Devils Tower. It was established to protect a prominent Wyoming 
landmark, an 867-foot massive stone shaft visible for a great distance 
and a guidepost over the centuries for Indians, explorers, and settlers. 
In December 1906 three more monuments were created: El Morro, 
New Mexico, famous for its prehistoric petroglyphs and hundreds of 
later inscriptions including those of 17th century Spanish explorers 
and 19th century American pioneers and settlers; Montezuma Castle, 
Arizona, one of the best preserved cliff dwellings in the United States; 
and Petrified Forest, Arizona, known for Indian ruins and petroglyphs 
as well -as extensive deposits of petrified wood. The first historic 
structure made a national monument was the Spanish mission of 
Tumacacori, Arizona, in September 1908. By the time the National 
Park Service was created in 1916, the national monument idea was 
well established as a means of protecting natural and cultural resources. 

Between 1906 and 1978, under authority of the Antiquities Act, 12 
Presidents proclaimed 99 national monuments— 38 predominantly 
historic or prehistoric and 61 "objects of . . . scientific interest." 
Extremely loose construction of "scientific objects" led to executive 
establishment of vast natural areas as national monuments— national 
parks in all but name. Of the 99 monuments that have been 
proclaimed, 57 retained that designation in 1984, 27 became or 
contributed to 24 national parks or national preserves, 3 became 
national historical parks, 2 are now national historic sites, 1 is a 
national battlefield, 1 is part of a national parkway, and 8 small ones 
were abolished. The Antiquities Act is the original authority of more 
than a quarter of the units of today's National Park System. 

Besides the national monuments proclaimed by Presidents under 
the Antiquities Act, 33 other areas were authorized with this designa- 
tion by individual acts of Congress. Twenty-two remained in the 
System as national monuments in 1984. The remainder have been 
retitled or never became part of the System. 

Because of its application to such diverse areas, national monu- 
ment designation communicates little about a particular area's 
characteristics. Congressional resistance to what was regarded as 
undue use of the Antiquities Act has worked against Presidential 
proclamations in recent decades. President Jimmy Carter's stopgap 
creation of 1 1 Alaska monuments for the National Park System when 

14 



Congress failed to pass related park legislation in 1978 is the notable 
exception. Most of the 11 national monuments individually author- 
ized by Congress from 1965 to 1980 are prehistoric sites and relatively 
small natural areas not readily designated otherwise; the System's 
more descriptive titles— national historic site, national seashore, 
national battlefield — have come to be favored where applicable. 

Mineral Springs, 1832-1916 Besides the national parks and 
national monuments, Federal reservations were established at two 
mineral springs. Since ancient times the soothing qualities of bathing 
in hot waters have attracted people to these sources of rejuvenation. 
Medicinal bathing reached its height of popularity in Europe during 
the 18th and 19th centuries when tens of thousands frequented such 
world famous spas as Bath, Aix-les-Bains, Aachen, Baden-Baden, and 
Carlsbad (now Karlovy Vary). As mineral springs were discovered in 
the New World, they too came to be highly valued. 

When significant springs were found on the western public lands, 
the Federal Government became interested. In 1832 Hot Springs, 
Arkansas Territory, was set aside to protect 47 hot springs, which 
were thought to have medicinal properties, emerging from a fault at 
the base of a mountain. In 1870 Congress recognized the area as the 
Hot Springs Reservation. 

In 1902 the Federal Government purchased 32 mineral springs 
near Sulfur, Oklahoma Territory, from the Choctaw and Chickasaw 
tribes. Like the Hot Springs Reservation, the Sulfur Springs Reserva- 
tion was placed under the Secretary of the Interior. The area was 
enlarged, and in 1906 Congress renamed it Piatt National Park in 
honor of the recently deceased Sen. Orville Piatt of Connecticut, who 
had been prominent in Indian affairs. 

Hot Springs Reservation and Piatt National Park were assigned to 
the National Park Service upon its creation in 1916. Hot Springs was 
designated a national park in 1921, but it remained an urbanized 
health resort and spa rather than a scenic or wilderness area. Piatt, an 
equally anomalous national park, lost its designation in 1976 when it 
was incorporated in the new Chickasaw National Recreation Area. 



15 



Executive and Legislative Actions Relating to Areas 
Managed by the Department of the Interior through 1916 



1832 

April 20 Hot Springs Reservation, Arkansas (redesignated Hot Springs 

NP1921) 

1872 

March 1 Yellowstone NP, Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho 

1875 

March 3 Mackinac Island NP, Michigan (ceded to Michigan 1895) 

1889 

March 2 Casa Grande Ruin Reservation, Arizona (redesignated Casa 

Grande NM 1918) 

1890 

Sept. 25 Sequoia NP, California 

Oct. 1 General Grant NP, California (incorporated in Kings Canyon 

NP 1940) 

Oct. 1 Yosemite NP, California 

1899 

March 22 Mount Rainier NP, Washington 

1902 

May 22 Crater Lake NP, Oregon 

1903 

Jan. 9 Wind Cave NP, South Dakota 

1904 

April 27 Sully's Hill NP, North Dakota (transferred to Agriculture 

Dept. as game preserve 1931) 

1906 

June 29 Mesa Verde NP, Colorado 

June 29 Piatt NP, Oklahoma (incorporated in Chickasaw NRA 1976) 

Sept. 24 Devils Tower NM, Wyoming 

Dec. 8 El Morro NM, New Mexico 

Dec. 8 Montezuma Castle NM, Arizona 

Dec. 8 Petrified Forest NM, Arizona (redesignated a NP 1962) 

1907 

March 1 1 Chaco Canyon NM, New Mexico (incorporated in Chaco 

Culture NHP 1980) 

1908 

Jan. 9 Muir Woods NM, California 

April 16 Natural Bridges NM, Utah 

May 1 1 Lewis and Clark Cavern NM, Montana (abolished 1937) 

Sept. 15 Tumacacori NM, Arizona 

16 



1909 

March 20 Navajo NM, Arizona 

July 31 Mukuntuweap NM, Utah (incorporated in Zion NP 1919) 

Sept. 21 Shoshone Cavern NM, Wyoming (abolished 1954) 

Nov. 1 Gran Quivira NM, New Mexico (incorporated in Salinas NM 

1980) 

1910 

March 23 Sitka NM, Alaska (redesignated a NHP 1972) 

May 1 1 Glacier NP, Montana 

May 30 Rainbow Bridge NM, Utah 

Dec. 12 Pinnacles NM, California (date of transfer from Agriculture 

Dept.) 

1911 

May 24 Colorado NM, Colorado 

1914 

Jan. 31 Papago Saguaro NM, Arizona (abolished 1930) 

1915 

Jan. 26 Rocky Mountain NP, Colorado 

Oct. 4 Dinosaur NM, Colorado and Utah 

1916 

July 8 Sieur de Monts NM, Maine (incorporated in Lafayette NP 

1919; redesignated Acadia NP 1929) 

Aug. 1 Hawaii NP, Hawaii (split into Haleakala NP and Hawaii NP 

1960; latter redesignated Hawaii Volcanoes NP 1961) 

Aug. 9 Capulin Mountain NM, New Mexico 

Aug. 9 Lassen Volcanic NP, California (incorporated Cinder Cone 

NM and Lassen Peak NM from Agriculture Dept.) 



Abbreviations I sed in the Tables in this Book 

NB National Battlefield NM National Monument \R \ National Recreation Area 

NBP National Battlefield Park NYlem National Memorial \s National Seashore 

NBS National Battlefield Site NMP National Military Park NSK National Scenic Riverwaj 

NHP National Historical Park NP National Park NSI National Scenic Trail 

NHS National Historic Site NPres National Preserve NNSK Wild and Scenic River 

NL National Lakeshore NR National River 



17 



The Early Years, 
1916 to 1933 



A new era for national parks and monuments opened on August 25, 
1916, 44 years after the establishment of Yellowstone, when President 
Woodrow Wilson signed legislation creating a new Federal bureau, 
the National Park Service, in the Department of the Interior. This 
action culminated years of efforts to establish a separate bureau to 
administer and coordinate policies and plans for parks and monu- 
ments by, among others, J. Horace McFarland of the American Civic 
Association, Secretaries of the Interior Walter L. Fisher and Franklin 
K. Lane, Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr., Reps. William Kent and John E. 
Raker of California, Sen. Reed Smoot of Utah, and Stephen T. 
Mather and Horace M. Albright, who became the first and second 
directors of the Service. 

The act created the Service "to promote and regulate the use of the 
Federal areas known as national parks, monuments, and reservations 
hereinafter specified by such means and measures as conform to the 
fundamental purpose of the said parks, monuments, and reservations, 
which purpose is to conserve the scenery and the natural and historic 
objects and the wild life therein and to provide for the enjoyment of 
the same in such manner and by such means as will leave them 
unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations." 

The act provided that the Service would supervise the national 
parks and monuments then under the Interior Department, together 
with the Hot Springs Reservation and "such other national parks and 
reservations of like character as may be hereafter created by 
Congress/ 1 On the date of the act Interior administered 14 national 
parks, 21 national monuments, Hot Springs Reservation, and Casa 
Grande Ruin. The new bureau was therefore launched with respon- 
sibility for 37 diverse areas. 

The partnership of Franklin Lane, Stephen Mather, and Horace 
Albright was one of those happy circumstances in which a blend of 
energies and foresight created an institution exceeding hopes and 
expectations. They seemed to work in a charged atmosphere in 
which ideals were transformed quickly into reality. Supported in their 
work by Lane's successors as secretaries of the Interior, Presidents, 
members of Congress and conservation leaders, Mather and Albright 
established many of the Service policies and programs familiar to 



18 



present-day visitors and employees— the uniformed ranger service, 
the information and interpretive programs, the role of the conces- 
sioners, the cooperating associations, and the professional natural 
and cultural resources management functions. 

During this period, despite the dislocations of World War I and the 
onset of the Depression, the System almost doubled in size. Public 
lands could still be secured for national parks and monuments, and 
large wilderness tracts were set aside. Lands also were donated for 
the first national parks east of the Mississippi, making the System 
more truly national. 

The increase in natural area holdings was spectacular. Six new 
national parks were authorized or established, and six others sprang 
from former national monuments or other reservations. Eleven 
national monuments protecting natural features were proclaimed on 
Department of the Interior lands and one was authorized by an act of 
Congress. 

The first national park following establishment of the National 
Park Service was Mount McKinley, authorized in 1917 to protect the 
Dall or white Alaska mountain sheep, caribou, Alaska moose, grizzly 
bear, and other wildlife on and around the highest mountain in 
North America. The two Alaska national monuments, Katmai and 
Glacier Bay, were each larger than any national park and long the 
largest areas in the System. Katmai was established in 1918 to protect 
the scene of one of the greatest volcanic eruptions of recorded his- 
tory, which occurred in June 1912. Glacier Bay, proclaimed in 1925, 
contains some 16 great tidewater glaciers and their mountain setting, 
together with abundant wildlife. Both became national parks in 1980. 

The establishment of national parks in the eastern half of the 
United States was a significant advance, building support for the 
Service and the System in the most populous part of the Nation. Sieur 
de Monts National Monument on the rugged Maine coast became 
Lafayette National Park in 1919 and was renamed Acadia National 
Park 10 years later. Three were authorized in 1926: Great Smoky 
Mountains National Park, Tennessee and North Carolina, in the 
highest section of the Appalachians; Shenandoah National Park 
along more than 100 miles of Virginia's Blue Ridge, affording superb 



19 



views of the Shenandoah Valley and surrounding country; and 
Mammoth Cave National Park, Kentucky, protecting a great lime- 
stone cavern from commercial exploitation. Isle Royale National 
Park, Michigan, authorized in 1931, encompassed a 45-mile-long 
wilderness island in Lake Superior noted for its moose, timber wolves, 
and prehistoric copper mines. The eastern parks could not be carved 
out of the public domain but had to be acquired through donation, 
sometimes following extensive land acquisition efforts by states and 
private philanthropists. Especially notable were the contributions of 
John D. Rockefeller, Jr., to Acadia and Great Smoky Mountains. 

All the other natural areas added to the System during the period 
were in the West. Prominent among the new western national parks 
were Grand Canyon in Arizona, Zion and Bryce Canyon in Utah, 
Grand Teton in Wyoming, and Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico. 
National monuments included Craters of the Moon, Idaho; Lava Beds 
and Death Valley, California; Great Sand Dunes, Colorado; White 
Sands, New Mexico; Arches, Utah; and Badlands, North Dakota. The 
last two became national parks in the 1970s. 

The increase in cultural holdings was also significant, pointing the 
way toward the monumental 1933 reorganization. Six of the new 
monuments were prehistoric sites that included spectacular Canyon 
de Chelly, Arizona, still occupied by Navajos; and Bandelier, New 
Mexico, which was proclaimed on Department of Agriculture land in 
1916 and transferred to the Park Service in 1932. Among six new his- 
torical areas were the first to join the System in the East — forerunners 
of very many more. George Washington Birthplace National Monu- 
ment, on the Potomac River at Wakefield, Virginia; Colonial National 
Monument, embracing Jamestown and Yorktown in close relation- 
ship to Williamsburg, Virginia; and Morristown National Historical 
Park, New Jersey, George Washington's headquarters during two 
severe winters of the Revolutionary War, launched the Service on a 
new course in historic site preservation that would greatly influence 
the future growth of the National Park System. 



20 



National Park System Additions 1917-1933 



1917 

Feb. 26 Mount McKinley NP, Alaska (incorporated in Denali NP and 

NPres 1980) 

June 29 Verendrye NM, North Dakota (abolished 1956) 

1918 

Sept. 24 Katmai NM, Alaska (incorporated in Katmai NP and 

NPres 1980) 

1919 

Feb. 26 Grand Canyon NP, Arizona (incorporated 1908 Grand 

Canyon NM; transferred from Agriculture Dept. Aug. 15) 

Feb. 26 Lafayette NP, Maine (incorporated Sieur de Monts NM; 

redesignated Acadia NP 1929) 

Nov. 19 Zion NP, Utah (incorporated Mukuntuweap NM) 

Dec. 12 Scotts Bluff NM, Nebraska 

Dec. 12 Yucca House NM, Colorado 

1922 

Oct. 21 Fossil Cycad NM, South Dakota (abolished 1956) 

1923 

Jan. 24 Aztec Ruins NM, New Mexico 

March 2 Hovenweep NM, Colorado and Utah 

May 31 Pipe Spring NM, Arizona 

Oct. 25 Carlsbad Cave NM, New Mexico (redesignated Carlsbad 

Caverns NP 1930) 

1924 

May 2 Craters of the Moon NM, Idaho 

Dec. 9 Wupatki NM, Arizona 

1925 

Feb. 26 Glacier Bay NM, Alaska (incorporated in Glacier Bay NP and 

NPres 1980) 

Nov. 21 Lava Beds NM, California 

1926 

May 22 Great Smoky Mountains NP, North Carolina and Tennessee 

May 22 Shenandoah NP, Virginia 

May 25 Mammoth Cave NP, Kentucky 

1928 

Feb. 25 Bryce Canyon NP, Utah (incorporated Bryce Canyon NM 

from Agriculture Dept.) 

1929 

Feb. 26 Grand Teton NP, Wyoming 

22 



March 4 Badlands NM, South Dakota (redesignated a NP 1978) 

April 12 Arches NM, Utah (redesignated a NP 1971) 

1930 

Jan. 23 George Washington Birthplace NM, Virginia 

July 3 Colonial NM, Virginia (redesignated a NHP 1936) 

1931 

Feb. 14 Canyon de Chelly NM, Arizona 

March 3 Isle Royale NP, Michigan 

1932 

Feb. 25 Bandelier NM, New Mexico (date of transfer from Agriculture 

Dept.) 

March 17 Great Sand Dunes NM, Colorado 

Dec. 22 Grand Canyon NM, Arizona (incorporated in Grand Canyon 

NP 1975) 

1933 

Jan. 18 White Sands NM, New Mexico 

Feb. 1 1 Death Valley NM, California and Nevada 

March 2 Black Canyon of the Gunnison NM, Colorado 

March 2 Morristown NHP, New Jersey 



23 



The Reorganization 
of 1933 



We come now to one of the most significant events in the evolution of 
the National Park System. An act of Congress approved by outgoing 
President Herbert Hoover on March 3, 1933, authorized the Presi- 
dent to reorganize the executive branch of the Federal Government. 
Using this authority, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed execu- 
tive orders on June 10 and July 28 consolidating all national parks 
and national monuments, all national military parks, 11 national 
cemeteries, all national memorials, and the parks of the National 
Capital under National Park Service administration. The story of how 
this amalgamation was finally brought about after 17 years of effort is 
told in fascinating detail by Horace M. Albright, then NPS director, 
in Origins of National Park Service Administration of Historic Sites 
(Eastern National Park and Monument Association, 1971). 

The reorganization had at least three major consequences. It made 
the National Park Service the bureau responsible for virtually all 
Federally owned public parks, monuments, and memorials, greatly 
strengthening its institutional position and importance. It changed 
assumptions of what the National Park System should contain by 
adding new kinds of areas not previously considered as either parks 
or monuments. And it substantially increased in number and geo- 
graphic diversity the System's holdings by adding a dozen predomi- 
nantly natural areas in 10 western states and nearly 50 historical areas 
in 7 eastern states and the District of Columbia. 

National Capital Parks, 1790-1933 The parks of the National 
Capital, absorbed in the reorganization, are the oldest elements of 
today's National Park System, tracing their origins to the beginnings 
of the District of Columbia in 1790-1791. The commissioners appointed 
by President George Washington to lay out the 10-mile-square Federal 
district on the Potomac were given control of all public lands within 
it, including parks. The office established by the commissioners in 
1791 was succeeded over the years by several offices with different 
names but similar functions. The Office of Public Buildings and Public 
Parks of the National Capital was in charge in 1933, when it was 
abolished in the reorganization and its functions transferred to the 
National Park Service. 



24 



President George Washington, who chose the site of the capital 
near his home at Mount Vernon, was intensely interested in the new 
seat of government. Early in 1791 he met with owners or proprietors 
of lands proposed for the Federal city and signed a purchase agree- 
ment resulting in acquisition of 17 different reservations. Reserva- 
tion 1 became the site of the White House and its grounds, Lafayette 
Park, and the Ellipse; Reservation 2 served for the Capitol and the 
eastern half of the Mall; Reservation 3 became the site of the 
Washington Monument. By 1898, 301 park areas had been developed 
on the original 17 reservations. 

The largest single park within the District of Columbia is Rock 
Creek Park, authorized on September 27, 1890— two days after 
Sequoia and four days before Yosemite. Congress carried over some 
language of the Yellowstone legislation into all three enactments. 
Like Yellowstone, Rock Creek Park was "dedicated and set apart as a 
public park or pleasure ground for the benefit and enjoyment of the 
people of the United States," where all timber, animals, and curiosi- 
ties were to be retained "in their natural condition, as nearly as 
possible. " Rock Creek Park remains a premier example today of a 
natural urban park. 

A final word on the term "National Capital Parks:" it has been 
variously used over the years as a collective designation for all the 
national parklands in and around Washington and as the name of the 
Park Service office administering them. As of 1984, National Capital 
Parks officially denoted only those miscellaneous lands in the District 
of Columbia and nearby Maryland not otherwise classed as discrete 
units of the National Park System. Although the designation thus 
excluded the National Mall, Washington Monument, Rock Creek 
Park, and areas of similar status, it is still often used informally to 
encompass them as well. 

National Memorials, 1783-1933 National memorials in and out- 
side Washington formed the most distinctly different class of areas 
added by the reorganization. They include such great national 
symbols as the Statue of Liberty, Washington Monument, and Mount 
Rushmore. Not all memorials bear that designation; the Statue of 



25 



Liberty, for example, is officially a national monument. Here "memo- 
rial" will be used generically to refer to those properties and features 
that are primarily commemorative. They are often not on sites 
historically associated with their subjects, but even when they are, 
they focus on commemorative structures or other features rather 
than preservation or restoration of the historic settings. 

The first Federal action toward a national memorial now in the 
System occurred in August 1783, when the Continental Congress 
resolved "that an equestrian statue of General Washington be erected 
where the residence of Congress shall be established." The L'Enfant 
Plan of 1791 provided a prominent location for this statue on the Mall 
at the intersection of lines drawn west from the Capitol and south 
from the White House. President Washington approved the site but 
concluded that the expense of the statue was then unwarranted. 

Washington's death on December 14, 1799, inspired passage of a 
congressional resolution for a marble monument in the Capitol 
commemorating the great events of his military and political life. The 
plans languished, and when the centennial of Washington's birth 
arrived in 1832 with no satisfactory monument in the National 
Capital, civic leaders organized the Washington National Monument 
Society to erect an appropriate memorial from private subscriptions. 
In 1848 Congress transferred to the society the site originally 
specified by L'Enfant for the equestrian statue, and the cornerstone 
of the Washington Monument was laid that July 4. But progress was 
slow, and the Civil War intervened. When the Nation's centennial 
arrived in 1876 with the monument only one-third completed, 
Congress passed legislation authorizing transfer of the structure and 
site to the United States for completion and subsequent maintenance. 
The monument was finished in accordance with a simplified design 
and was dedicated in 1885. 

During the centennial, France presented the Statue of Liberty to 
the United States as a gift. On March 3, 1877, President Ulysses S. 
Grant approved a joint resolution of Congress authorizing accept- 
ance of the statue, provision of a suitable site in New York Harbor, 
and preservation of the structure "as a monument of art and the 
continued good will of the great nation which aided us in our struggle 
for freedom." In effect a memorial to the French alliance, the Statue 
of Liberty was dedicated on October 28, 1886, and was proclaimed a 
national monument under the War Department, its custodian, on 
October 15, 1924. 

The Lincoln Memorial was authorized by an act approved Feb- 
ruary 9, 1911, to occupy a site on the extended axis of the Mall in 
Washington as proposed by the McMillan Plan. The work of archi- 

26 



tect Henry Bacon and sculptor Daniel Chester French, it was 
dedicated May 30, 1922. Another memorial to Lincoln, enshrining his 
supposed birthplace cabin at Hodgenville, Kentucky, was erected in 
1907-1911 from a design by John Russell Pope, later architect of the 
Thomas Jefferson Memorial in Washington. The birthplace property 
and this memorial building were transferred to the United States in 
1916 and administered by the War Department as Abraham Lincoln 
National Park. Under the National Park Service after 1933, it was 
ultimately redesignated a national historic site; the character of the 
site's development, however, makes it in effect a national memorial. 

The famous memorial to Ulysses S. Grant, the Union commander 
and U.S. President, was dedicated in New York City on April 27, 
1897. Grant's Tomb, as it was commonly known, was transferred by 
the city and the Grant Monument Association to the Federal 
Government in 1958 and was placed under the Park Service as 
General Grant National Memorial the next year. 

Congress authorized six more national memorials before the 1933 
reorganization: a memorial to Portuguese explorer Juan Rodriguez 
Cabrillo in California, proclaimed Cabrillo National Monument 
under the War Department in 1913; Perry's Victory Memorial, Ohio, 
in 1919; Mount Rushmore National Memorial, South Dakota, in 
1925; Kill Devil Hill Monument National Memorial, North Carolina 
(later Wright Brothers National Memorial), in 1927; the George 
Rogers Clark memorial in Indiana, 1928; and the Theodore Roose- 
velt memorial (Theodore Roosevelt Island) in Washington, D.C., 
1932. Cabrillo National Monument and the future Wright Brothers 
National Memorial were transferred from the War Department and 
the Theodore Roosevelt memorial from the Office of Public Build- 
ings and Public Parks of the National Capital in the reorganization. 
The Park Service was assigned the fiscal functions of the Mount 
Rushmore National Memorial Commission in 1933 and the memorial 
itself in 1939. Perry's Victory Memorial was administered by a similar 
commission until added to the National Park System as Perry's 
Victory and International Peace Memorial National Monument in 
1936. (The national monument suffix was dropped in 1972.) The 
George Rogers Clark memorial came into the System through a 1966 
act authorizing the George Rogers Clark National Historical Park. 
Several historic sites proposed for the park were never acquired, 
leaving the area essentially a national memorial. 

The Custis-Lee Mansion in Arlington, Virginia, transferred from the 
War Department in the reorganization, was redesignated Arlington 
House, The Robert E. Lee Memorial, by an act of Congress approved 
June 30, 1972. Although thus prescribed as the Nation's memorial to 



27 



Lee, Arlington House is a historic structure restored and preserved to 
reflect his occupancy, placing it outside our working definition of a 
national memorial; it is a de facto national historic site. 

National Military Parks, 1781-1933 The national military parks- 
battlefields bearing this and several other designations— have a long 
and relatively unfamiliar history. By 1933 the War Department had 
developed a national military park system that numbered 19 areas, of 
which 11 were national military parks, 7 were national battlefield 
sites, and 1 was a "monument and grounds/' 

American battlefield commemoration began when the Continental 
Congress, inspired by news of the victory at Yorktown in October 
1781, authorized "to be erected at York, Virginia, a marble column, 
adorned with emblems of the alliance between the United States and 
His Most Christian Majesty; and inscribed with a succinct narrative 
of the surrender. . . ." Funds were not immediately available, and 
Congress did not follow through until the centennial of the surrender 
in 1881. Then the Yorktown Column was raised, exactly according to 
the resolution of the Continental Congress. It is now a prominent 
feature of Colonial National Historical Park. 

The battlefield monument idea received its greatest impetus in 
Boston when Daniel Webster, Edward Everett, and other prominent 
citizens formed the Bunker Hill Battle Monument Association in 1823 
to save part of the historic field there and erect on it a great com- 
memorative obelisk. Webster delivered a moving oration before a 
large audience at the cornerstone laying in 1825. The Bunker Hill 
Monument demonstrated how commemorative sentiment might be 
crystallized and became the prototype for many other battlefield 
monuments. During the centennial years of the Revolution, 1876-1883, 
Congress appropriated Federal funds to supplement local contribu- 
tions for Revolutionary War battle monuments. Through this means 
imposing tributes were erected at Bennington Battlefield, Saratoga, 
Newburgh, and Oriskany, New York; Kings Mountain, South Carolina; 
Monmouth, New Jersey; and Groton, Connecticut. Like the York- 
town Column, the Bunker Hill, Kings Mountain, and Saratoga monu- 
ments later became features of units of the National Park System. 

The Revolutionary War tradition embodied in such monuments, 
shared by North and South, helped draw the two sections together 
after the Civil War. Former soldiers from South Carolina and Virginia 
participated in the centennial observance of the Battle of Bunker Hill 
in Boston in 1875, the first time Union and Confederate veterans 
publicly fraternized after the war. The practice of joint reunions soon 
spread to Civil War battlefields, culminating in spectacular veterans' 

28 



encampments at Gettysburg in 1888 and Chattanooga in 1895. 

Previously on April 30, 1864, before the Civil War had ended, 
Pennsylvania had chartered the Gettysburg Battlefield Memorial 
Association to commemorate "the great deeds of valor . . . and the 
signal events which render these battle-grounds illustrious. " A pres- 
ervation society also began work at Chickamauga and Chattanooga. 
With such interest and support, Congress decided to go beyond the 
original battlefield monument concept. By the end of the century it 
had authorized the first four national military parks— Chickamauga 
and Chattanooga in 1890, Shiloh in 1894, Gettysburg in 1895, and 
Vicksburg in 1899— and Antietam National Battlefield Site in 1890. It 
was contemplated that the Federal Government would acquire the 
lands with appropriated funds and preserve the cultural features of 
each battlefield while states, units, and associations would provide 
monuments at appropriate locations. Preservation, memorialization, 
and interpretation would thus be combined. 

Land acquisition for Gettysburg National Military Park led to a 
Supreme Court ruling important to the later expansion of the 
National Park System. A local electric railway company contested the 
condemnation of its right-of-way through the battlefield, claiming 
that preserving and marking lines of battle were not public uses 
justifying the taking of private property. In 1896 Justice Rufus W. 
Peckham handed down the court's unanimous decision, which read 
in part: "The battle of Gettysburg was one of the great battles of the 
world. . . . The existence of the government itself, and the perpetuity 
of our institutions depended on the result. . . . Can it be that the 
government is without power to preserve the land, and properly mark 
out the various sites upon which this struggle took place? Can it not 
erect monuments provided for by these acts of Congress, or even 
take possession of the field of battle, in the name of and for the 
benefit of all the citizens of the country, for the present and for the 
future? Such a use seems necessarily not only a public use, but one so 
closely connected with the welfare of the republic itself as to be 
within the powers granted Congress by the constitution for the 
purpose of protecting and preserving the whole country." Had the 
court ruled otherwise, future land acquisitions for similar purposes 
would have been severely hampered. 

The 1907 authorization of the Chalmette Monument, commemo- 
rating the Battle of New Orleans during the War of 1812, was a step 
away from the recent focus on the Civil War. Guilford Courthouse 
National Military Park, North Carolina, authorized a decade later, 
encompassed the first Revolutionary War battlefield so preserved. 
Confronted with many proposals, Congress in 1926 authorized the 



29 



War Department to survey all the historic battlefields in the United 
States and prepare a preservation and commemoration plan. Largely 
as a result of this survey, 11 more national military parks and battle- 
field sites were added to Federal holdings before 1933: Fort Necessity 
in Pennsylvania, site of the opening engagement of the French and 
Indian War; the Revolutionary War battlefields of Cowpens and Kings 
Mountain in South Carolina and Moores Creek in North Carolina; 
the Civil War sites of Appomattox Court House, Fredericksburg and 
Spotsylvania County, and Petersburg in Virginia, Brices Cross Roads 
and Tupelo in Mississippi, and Fort Donelson and Stones River in 
Tennessee. 

One of the most important battlefields acquired by the Govern- 
ment during this period, Yorktown, went not to the War Department 
but to the National Park Service as a component of Colonial National 
Monument in 1930. This acquisition and the authorization of another 
Revolutionary War area, Morristown National Historical Park, on 
March 2, 1933, thrust the Park Service into the previously exclusive 
domain of the War Department and elevated its credentials as the 
logical recipient of the latters military parks. On August 10, 1933, the 
effective date of the executive orders implementing the reorganiza- 
tion, Colonial and Morristown were joined by the 19 battlefields 
enumerated above. 

Most national cemeteries under the National Park Service are 
closely related to battlefield parks. Acquired with them in the reorga- 
nization were Antietam (Sharpsburg) National Cemetery, Maryland; 
Battleground National Cemetery, Washington, D.C.; Chattanooga 
National Cemetery, Tennessee (returned to the War Department in 
1944); Fort Donelson (Dover) National Cemetery, Tennessee; Fred- 
ericksburg National Cemetery, Virginia; Gettysburg National Ceme- 
tery, Pennsylvania; Poplar Grove (Petersburg) National Cemetery, 
Virginia; Shiloh (Pittsburg Landing) National Cemetery, Tennessee; 
Stones River (Murfreesboro) National Cemetery, Tennessee; Vicks- 
burg National Cemetery, Mississippi; and Yorktown National Ceme- 
tery, Virginia. 

Most famous among them is Gettysburg National Cemetery, 
which, with Arlington, is one of the two most revered national 
cemeteries in the United States. The battle of Gettysburg was 
scarcely over when Gov. Andrew Y. Curtin of Pennsylvania hastened 
to the field to assist local residents in caring for the dead, dying, and 
other wounded. More than 6,000 soliders had been killed in action, 
and among 21,000 wounded hundreds more died each day. Many 
were hastily interred in improvised graves on the battlefield. Curtin at 
once approved plans for a Soldiers' National Cemetery and asked 

30 





» 



Gettyburg National Military Park 



Gettysburg attorney David Wills to purchase a plot in the name of 
Pennsylvania. Wills selected 17 acres and engaged William Saunders, 
an eminent horticulturalist, to lay out the grounds. Fourteen northern 
states provided the necessary funds. 

Saunders planned Gettysburg National Cemetery as we know it 
today, enclosed by massive stone walls, the ample lawns framed by 
trees and shrubs, the grave sites laid out in a great semicircle around 
the site for a proposed Soldiers 1 National Monument. At the dedica- 
tion on November 19, 1863, President Abraham Lincoln delivered his 
Gettysburg Address. Gettysburg National Cemetery became the 
property of the Nation on May 1, 1872, more than 20 years before the 
national military park there was authorized. 

Similar events took place on the other great battlefields of the Civil 
War. Congress recognized the importance of honoring and caring for 
the remains of the Union war dead by passing general legislation in 
1867 that provided for the extensive system of national cemeteries 
subsequently developed by the War Department. As at Gettysburg, 
each cemetery transferred to the Park Service in 1933 was carefully 
landscaped and enclosed with stone walls to achieve an effect of 
"simple grandeur," and each preceded establishment of its associated 
battlefield park. 

The act of 1867 also provided authority for preserving an impor- 
tant battleground of the Indian wars. On January 29, 1879, the 
Secretary of War established a national cemetery at the site of the 
Battle of the Little Bighorn in Montana Territory. It was proclaimed 
the National Cemetery of Custer's Battlefield Reservation in 1886, 
transferred from the War Department to the National Park Service in 
1940, and designated Custer Battlefield National Monument by act of 
Congress in 1946. Other national cemeteries acquired by the Service 
after the reorganization were Andrew Johnson National Cemetery, a 
component of the Andrew Johnson National Monument, Tennessee, 
authorized in 1935; Chalmette National Cemetery, transferred by the 
War Department for Chalmette National Historical Park in 1939; and 
Andersonville National Cemetery, part of Andersonville National 
Historic Site, Georgia, authorized in 1970. 

Until 1975 the national cemeteries transferred in the reorganiza- 
tion were carried as separate units of the National Park System. Since 
that date the cemeteries, while retaining their special identities, have 
not been listed apart from their associated parks. 

Other War Department Properties, 1910-1933 At the same time 
that national monuments were being established under Department of 
the Interior jurisdiction, monuments also were proclaimed for admin- 

32 



istration by the departments of War and Agriculture. Before the 
reorganization transferred them to the National Park Service, there 
were 10 national monuments on military reservations. Two other War 
Department areas originally had been designated "national parks." 

Abraham Lincoln National Park, the birthplace memorial and 
grounds, was donated to the Government and assigned by law to War 
Department administration. The other areas constituted a small 
sampling of the rich historic resources within United States military 
reservations. The first War Department national monument, Big 
Hole Battlefield, Montana, was set aside in 1910 to preserve the site 
of an 1877 battle between United States troops and Nez Perce Indians 
under Chief Joseph. Cabrillo National Monument commemorated 
the Portuguese navigator who passed along the Pacific coast in 1542. 
Mound City Group, Ohio, protected the site of 24 burial mounds of 
the prehistoric Hopewell Indians. 

The next five monuments resulted from a single executive order by 
President Calvin Coolidge on October 15, 1924. Fort Marion National 
Monument, later retitled with its old Spanish name Castillo de San 
Marcos, recognized an ancient Spanish fort in St. Augustine, Florida, 
the oldest permanent European settlement in the continental United 
States. Another monument protected Fort Matanzas, constructed by 
the Spanish in 1742 to defend the southern approaches to St. Augus- 
tine. Fort Pulaski National Monument preserved a fine early- 19th 
century brick fort at the mouth of the Savannah River. Occupied by 
Confederate forces at the outbreak of the Civil War, it yielded under 
bombardment by Federal rifled cannon in 1862. The Statue of Liberty, 
based on Fort Wood in New York Harbor, was made a national 
monument (to which Ellis Island was added in 1965). The small 
Castle Pinckney National Monument in Charleston Harbor was later 
abolished. 

An act of Congress approved March 3, 1925, directed the Secretary 
of War "to begin the restoration of Fort McHenry ... to such a 
condition as would make it suitable for preservation permanently as a 
national park and perpetual national memorial shrine as the birth- 
place of the immortal 'Star-Spangled Banner.' " Abraham Lincoln and 
Fort McHenry national parks received more appropriate designa- 
tions once under the National Park Service; the "national monument 
and historic shrine" label given the fort in 1939 remains unique. 

The act of May 29, 1930, authorizing the George Washington 
Memorial Parkway directed that Fort Washington, a 19th century 
defense of the Nation's Capital across the Potomac from Mount 
Vernon, should be added to the parkway holdings when no longer 
needed for military purposes. This transfer to the Park Service took 

33 



place in 1940 and is not considered part of the 1933 reorganization. 
Fort Washington Park is now a unit of the National Park System. 

Department of Agriculture Properties, 1907-1933 The Depart- 
ment of Agriculture had 21 national monuments on national forest 
lands before the reorganization. The first two national monuments 
under Agriculture were Lassen Peak and Cinder Cone, proclaimed 
within Lassen Peak National Forest, California, on May 6, 1907, to 
protect evidence of what was then the most recent volcanic activity 
in the United States. Nine years later these lands were transferred to 
Interior as the nucleus of Lassen Volcanic National Park. 

Fourteen of Agriculture's other monuments were also established 
to preserve "scientific objects." Especially noteworthy was Grand 
Canyon National Monument, proclaimed January 11, 1908, by Presi- 
dent Theodore Roosevelt on lands within Grand Canyon National 
Forest, Arizona, to impede commercial development there. The 
monument contained 818,560 acres, making it 13 times larger than 
any previous one. Roosevelt's bold action was later sustained by the 
United States Supreme Court, confirming the precedent for other 
very large national monuments such as Katmai, Glacier Bay, and 
Death Valley. In 1919 Grand Canyon National Monument was 
transferred to the National Park Service to become part of Grand 
Canyon National Park. A second Grand Canyon National Monu- 
ment, proclaimed in 1932 and assigned to the Park Service, was 
incorporated in the enlarged national park in 1975. 

On March 2, 1909, two days before leaving office, Roosevelt 
proclaimed another large natural monument, Mount Olympus, within 
Olympic National Forest, Washington. Encompassing 615,000 acres, 
it was intended to protect the Olympic elk and important stands of 
Sitka spruce, western hemlock, Douglas-fir, and Alaska cedar. It 
formed the nucleus for Olympic National Park in 1938. 

Among the other scientific national monuments were four caves: 
Jewel Cave, South Dakota; Oregon Caves, Oregon; Lehman Caves, 
Nevada; and Timpanogos Cave, Utah. In the National Park System 
they would join Carlsbad Caverns, Mammoth Cave, and Wind Cave 
national parks. 

The first of only five archeological monuments in the group was 
Gila Cliff Dwellings, New Mexico, proclaimed November 16, 1907. It 
was followed by Tonto and Walnut Canyon in Arizona and then by 
Bandelier, New Mexico, established within the Santa Fe National 
Forest. The fifth was Old Kasaan National Monument, Alaska, abol- 
ished in 1955. 

The 1933 reorganization transferred to the Park Service all Depart- 

34 



ment of Agriculture monuments other than those previously con- 
veyed as monuments or incorporated in national parks. Just after the 
reorganization, on August 22, 1933, President Franklin D. Roosevelt 
proclaimed another national monument— Cedar Breaks, Utah— on 
national forest land and assigned it to the Park Service. He repeated 
himself on March 13, 1943, with Jackson Hole National Monument, 
Wyoming, formed principally from Grand Teton National Forest; it 
was partially incorporated in Grand Teton National Park in 1950. 

A limited reversion to Agriculture Department administration of 
national monuments came on December 1, 1978, when President 
Jimmy Carter proclaimed the Admiralty Island and Misty Fjords 
national monuments within the Tongass National Forest, Alaska, and 
prescribed their management as units of the National Forest System. 
Their status was confirmed by the Alaska National Interest Lands 
Conservation Act of December 2, 1980. Another act approved 
August 26, 1982, established Mount St. Helens National Volcanic 
Monument at the site of the recent eruption in Gifford Pinchot 
National Forest, Washington, and also retained it under the U.S. 
Forest Service. Since 1975 the Forest Service has also adminstered 
Gila Cliff Dwellings under an agreement with the Park Service. 

In summary, the impact of the 1933 reorganization was both 
immediate and long-lasting. Of the 334 areas in the System a 
half-century later, 53 arrived in whole or part at that single stroke. 
The new historical areas introduced a degree of diversity that had 
hitherto not existed. And with parks in all sections of the country, the 
system was now truly national. 



35 



Background to the Reorganization of 1933 



National Capital Parks 1 790-1 933 
1790 

District of Columbia authorized 
1791 

L'Enfant Plan for Washington drawn up; 17 original reservations 
acquired 
1849 

Parks placed under the authority of the newly established Depart- 
ment of the Interior 
1866 

Ford's Theatre acquired 
1867 

Parks placed under authority of Chief Engineer, U.S. Army 
1890 

Rock Creek Park authorized 
1896 

House Where Lincoln Died acquired 
1897 

Potomac Park authorized 
1925 

Arlington House restoration authorized 
1930 

George Washington Memorial Parkway authorized 
1933 
National Capital Parks added to National Park System 

National Memorials 1 783-1 933 

1783 

Aug. 7 Equestrian statue of George Washington authorized 

1848 

July 4 Washington Monument cornerstone laid 

1876 

Aug. 2 Washington Monument accepted by United States 

1877 

March 3 Statue of Liberty accepted by United States 

1885 

Feb. 21 Washington Monument dedicated 

1897 

April 27 Grant's Tomb dedicated 

36 



1911 

Feb. 9 Lincoln Memorial authorized 

1913 

Oct. 14 Cabrillo NM proclaimed (also listed with War Dept. 

properties) 

1916 

July 17 Abraham Lincoln Birthplace memorial (Abraham Lincoln 

NP) accepted by United States (also listed with War Dept. properties) 

1919 

March 3 Perry's Victory Memorial authorized 

1922 

May 30 Lincoln Memorial dedicated 

1924 

Oct. 15 Statue of Liberty NM proclaimed (also listed with War Dept. 

properties) 

1925 

March 3 Mount Rushmore NMem authorized 

1927 

March 2 Kill Devil Hill Monument NMem authorized (also listed with 

War Dept. properties) 

1928 

May 23 George Rogers Clark memorial authorized 

1932 

May 21 Theodore Roosevelt memorial authorized 

National Military Parks 1781-1933 

1781 

Oct. 29 Yorktown Column authorized 

1825 

June 17 Bunker Hill Monument cornerstone laid 

1880 

June 7 Yorktown Column reauthorized 

1890 

Aug. 19 Chickamauga and Chattanooga NMP, Georgia and Tennessee 

Aug. 30 Antietam NBS, Maryland (redesignated a NB 1978) 

1894 

Dec. 27 Shiloh NMP, Tennessee 

1895 

Feb. 1 1 Gettysburg NMP, Pennsylvania 



37 



1899 

Feb. 21 Vicksburg NMP, Mississippi 

1907 

March 4 Chalmette Monument and Grounds, Louisiana (redesignated 

Chalmette NHP 1939; incorporated in Jean Lafitte NHP and Pres 1978) 

1917 

Feb. 8 Kennesaw Mountain NBS, Georgia (redesignated a NBP 1935) 

March 2 Guilford Courthouse NMP, North Carolina 

1926 

June 2 Moores Creek NMP, North Carolina (redesignated a NB 1980) 

July 3 Petersburg NMP, Virginia (redesignated a NB 1962) 

1927 

Feb. 14 Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania County Battlefields 

Memorial NMP, Virginia 

March 3 Stones River NMP, Tennessee (redesignated a NB 1960) 

1928 

March 26 Fort Donelson NMP, Tennessee 

1929 

Feb. 21 Brices Cross Roads NBS, Mississippi 

Feb. 21 Tupelo NBS, Mississippi (redesignated a NB 1961) 

March 4 Cowpens NBS, South Carolina (redesignated a NB 1972) 

1930 

June 18 Appomattox Battlefield Site, Virginia (redesignated 

Appomattox Court House National Historical Monument 1935; 

redesignated Appomattox Court House NHP 1954) 

1931 

March 4 Fort Necessity NBS, Pennsylvania (redesignated a NB 1961 ) 

March 4 Kings Mountain NMP, South Carolina 

War Department National Monuments and Comparable Properties 

1910-1933 

1910 

June 23 Big Hole Battlefield NM, Montana (redesignated Big Hole NB 1963) 

1913 

Oct. 14 Cabrillo NM, California (also listed with national memorials) 

1916 

July 17 Abraham Lincoln NP, Kentucky (redesignated a NHP 1939; 

redesignated Abraham Lincoln Birthplace NHS 1959; also listed with 

national memorials) 

38 



1923 

March 2 Mound City Group NM, Ohio 

1924 

Oct. 13 Castle Pinckney NM, South Carolina (abolished 1956) 

Oct. 15 Fort Marion NM, Florida (redesignated Castillo de San 

Marcos NM 1942) 

Oct. 15 Fort Matanzas NM, Florida 

Oct. 15 Fort Pulaski NM, Georgia 

Oct. 15 Statue of Liberty NM, New York (also listed with national 

memorials) 

1925 

Feb. 6 Meriwether Lewis NM, Tennessee (incorporated in Natchez 

Trace Parkway 1961) 

March 3 Fort McHenry NP, Maryland (redesignated Fort McHenry 

NM and Historic Shrine 1939) 

Sept. 5 Father Millet Cross NM, New York (abolished 1949) 

1927 

March 2 Kill Devil Hill Monument NMem (redesignated Wright 

Brothers NMem 1953; also listed with national memorials) 

1930 

May 29 Fort Washington, Maryland (date transfer authorized; 

effective 1940) 

Agriculture Department National Monuments 1907-1933 

1907 

May 6 Cinder Cone NM, California (incorporated in Lassen Volcanic 

NP1916) 

May 6 Lassen Peak NM, California (incorporated in Lassen Volcanic 

NP1916) 

Nov. 16 Gila Cliff Dwellings NM, New Mexico 

Dec. 19 Tonto NM, Arizona 

1908 

Jan. 11 Grand Canyon NM, Arizona (incorporated in Grand 

Canyon NP 1919) 

Jan. 16 Pinnacles NM, California (transferred to Interior 1910) 

Feb. 7 Jewel Cave NM, South Dakota 

Dec. 7 Wheeler NM, Colorado (abolished 1950) 

1909 

March 2 Mount Olympus NM, Washington (incorporated in Olympic 



39 



NP 1938) 

July 12 Oregon Caves NM, Oregon 

1911 

July 6 Devils Postpile NM, California 

1915 

Nov. 30 Walnut Canyon NM, Arizona 

1916 

Feb. 1 1 Bandelier NM, New Mexico (transferred to Interior 1932) 

Oct. 25 Old Kasaan NM, Alaska (abolished 1955) 

1922 

Jan. 24 Lehman Caves NM, Nevada 

Oct. 14 Timpanogos Cave NM, Utah 

1923 

June 8 Bryce Canyon NM, Utah (incorporated in Bryce Canyon NP 1928) 

1924 

April 18 Chiricahua NM, Arizona 

1929 

May 1 1 Holy Cross NM, Colorado (abolished 1950) 

1930 

May 26 Sunset Crater NM, Arizona 

1933 

March 1 Saguaro NM, Arizona 

Present-day NPS Areas from the Reorganization of 1933 

Abraham Lincoln Birthplace NHS, Kentucky 

Antietam NB, Maryland 

Appomattox Court House NHP, Virginia 

Arlington House, The Robert E. Lee Memorial, Virginia 

Big Hole NB, Montana 

Brices Cross Roads NBS, Mississippi 

Cabrillo NM, California 

Castillo de San Marcos NM, Florida 

Chickamauga and Chattanooga NMP, Georgia and Tennessee 

Chiricahua NM, Arizona 

Colonial NHP, Virginia — Yorktown National Cemetery 

Cowpens NB, South Carolina 

Devils Postpile NM, California 

Ford's Theatre NHS, District of Columbia 

Fort Donelson NMP, Tennessee 



40 



Fort McHenry NM and Historic Shrine, Maryland 

Fort Matanzas NM, Florida 

Fort Necessity NB, Pennsylvania 

Fort Pulaski NM, Georgia 

Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania County Battlefields Memorial NMP, 

Virginia 

George Washington Memorial Parkway, Virginia and Maryland 

Gettysburg NMP, Pennsylvania 

Gila Cliff Dwellings NM, New Mexico 

Guilford Courthouse NMP, North Carolina 

Jean Lafitte NHP and Preserve, Louisiana— Chalmette Unit 

Jewel Cave NM, South Dakota 

Kennesaw Mountain NBP, Georgia 

Kings Mountain NMP, South Carolina 

Lehman Caves NM, Nevada 

Lincoln Memorial, District of Columbia 

Moores Creek NB, North Carolina 

Mound City Group NM, Ohio 

Natchez Trace Parkway, Mississippi — Meriwether Lewis Park 

National Capital Parks, District of Columbia and Maryland 

National Mall, District of Columbia 

Olympic NP, Washington — Mount Olympus NM portion 

Oregon Caves NM, Oregon 

Petersburg NB, Virginia 

Rock Creek Park, District of Columbia 

Saguaro NM, Arizona 

Shiloh NMP, Tennessee 

Statue of Liberty NM, New York and New Jersey 

Stones River NB, Tennessee 

Sunset Crater NM, Arizona 

Theodore Roosevelt Island, District of Columbia 

Timpanogos Cave NM, Utah 

Tonto NM, Arizona 

Tupelo NB, Mississippi 

Vicksburg NMP, Mississippi 

Walnut Canyon NM, Arizona 

Washington Monument, District of Columbia 

White House, District of Columbia 

Wright Brothers NMem, North Carolina 



41 



From the Depression to Mission 66, 
1933 to 1963 



The long period from 1933 through 1963, which began with the need 
to assimilate the diverse areas acquired in the reorganization into the 
National Park System, was crowded with important events for the 
Nation and the System. The early years were marked by the great 
social and economic changes in American life that accompanied the 
New Deal. Among many other measures in 1933, President Franklin 
D. Roosevelt instituted a broad program of natural resource conser- 
vation implemented in part through the new Civilian Conservation 
Corps. At the program's peak in 1935 the Service was allotted 600 
CCC camps, 118 of them in National Park System areas and 482 in 
state parks, employing approximately 120,000 enrollees and 6,000 pro- 
fessionally trained supervisors, including landscape architects, engi- 
neers, foresters, biologists, historians, architects, and archeologists. 

The effects of the CCC and other economic recovery programs on 
Service management, planning, development, and staffing were 
profound. But within a few years came Pearl Harbor, and the Nation 
turned sharply from domestic programs to total mobilization for 
World War II. Not only were the CCC and other emergency 
programs dismantled, but regular appropriations for managing the 
System were cut from $21 million in 1940 to $5 million in 1943, the 
number of full-time employees was slashed from 3,510 to 1,974, and 
visits fell from 21 million in 1941 to 6 million in 1942. There was only 
a brief period after 1945 before military needs again became domi- 
nant with the outbreak of the Korean conflict. 

During these years the integrity of the System required constant 
defense against wartime pressures for resource utilization. When 
peace came, new pressures were felt from a tremendous increase in 
travel as personal incomes, leisure time, and mobility rose for 
growing numbers of people. Visits to the national parklands mounted 
from the 6 million of 1942 to 33 million in 1950 and 72 million in 1960. 

These and other changing conditions, including a great and 
growing backlog of deferred park maintenance and development 
projects, posed new problems for the Service and the System. The 
major response was Mission 66, a 10-year rehabilitation and capital 
development program begun by Director Conrad L. Wirth in 1956 to 
improve facilities, staffing, and resource preservation at all areas in 



42 



time for the 50th anniversary of the Service. Other important 
developments during the last years of the period were formation of 
the Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission to address a 
perceived national "crisis in outdoor recreation," subsequent estab- 
lishment of a Bureau of Outdoor Recreation in the Interior Depart- 
ment, and mounting national concern for better protection of 
America's diminishing wilderness. 

Throughout these years the System continued to grow. Between 
August 10, 1933 (the effective date of the reorganization), and the 
end of 1963, 93 of the 334 units within the System in 1984 were 
authorized, proclaimed, designated, or otherwise added to the rolls. 
These numerous and diverse areas were acquired under the leader- 
ship of four directors: Arno B. Cammerer, 1933-1940; Newton B. 
Drury, 1940-1951; Arthur E. Demaray, 1951 (who served 17 years as 
associate director to his two predecessors); and Conrad Wirth, 
1951-1964. They were supported by successive secretaries of the 
Interior and worked closely with many members of Congress. 

Of the permanent additions, 14 were natural, 13 were recreational, 
and 66 were historical, marking a significant alteration in the 
System's composition. 

Natural Areas In the first category, three entirely new national 
parks, one national memorial park later redesignated a national park, 
and seven national monuments protecting natural features were 
added to the System between August 1933 and the end of 1963; and 
four essentially new national parks were formed or expanded from 
preexisting holdings. 

During his first seven years in office President Franklin D. Roose- 
velt routinely proclaimed five scientific national monuments— three 
of them very large. Cedar Breaks protected a remarkable natural 
amphitheater of eroded limestone and sandstone in southwestern 
Utah; Joshua Tree preserved a characteristic part — initially 825,340 
acres— of the Mojave and Colorado deserts in southern California; 
Organ Pipe Cactus incorporated 325,000 acres of the Sonoran Desert 
in southern Arizona; Capitol Reef preserved a 20-mile segment of the 
great Waterpocket Fold in south-central Utah; and Channel Islands 



43 



protected Santa Barbara and Anacapa islands, the two smallest in a 
group of eight off the coast of southern California. Roosevelt's sixth 
scientific monument, however, was another story. 

Jackson Hole, Wyoming, had been discussed as a possible addition 
to Yellowstone as early as 1892, and from 1916 onward the Park 
Service and Interior Department had actively sought its inclusion in 
the National Park System. John D. Rockefeller, Jr., visited the area in 
1926 with Horace Albright, then superintendent of Yellowstone, and 
was distressed by the presence of unsightly commercial development 
on private lands despoiling the view of the Teton Range. With official 
encouragement, he began an undercover land acquisition program. 
In a few years his Snake River Land Company purchased more than 
33,000 acres that he offered as a gift to the United States. 

When Rockefeller's involvement and intent became public, bitter 
opposition developed among cattlemen, dude ranchers, packers, 
hunters, timber interests, and local Forest Service officials who pre- 
ferred livestock ranches and forest crops to a national park, county 
officials who feared loss of tax revenues, and politically sensitive state 
leaders. Responding to the opposition, Wyoming's congressional 
delegation thwarted passage of park enabling legislation. In 1943, 
after Rockefeller expressed impatience with holding and paying taxes 
on his acquisition, Roosevelt proclaimed the Jackson Hole National 
Monument, consolidating Rockefeller's donated land and 179,000 
acres withdrawn from Teton National Forest into a single area 
adjoining the limited Grand Teton National Park established in 1929. 

Roosevelt's proclamation unleashed a storm of criticism that had 
been brewing for years about such executive actions. Rep. Frank A. 
Barrett of Wyoming and others introduced bills to abolish the 
monument and repeal the proclamation authority in the Antiquities 
Act. Legislation abolishing the monument passed Congress in 1944 
but was vetoed by Roosevelt, who observed that Presidents of both 
parties beginning with Theodore Roosevelt had preceded Jackson 
Hole with 82 other national monuments, 7 of them larger ones. The 
monument proclamation was also contested unsuccessfully in court. 
A compromise was finally worked out and embodied in legislation 
approved by President Harry S Truman in 1950. It combined most of 
Jackson Hole National Monument and the old Grand Teton National 
Park in a new Grand Teton National Park of some 298,000 acres with 
special provisions for tax revenue compensation and hunting. It also 
prohibited establishing or enlarging national parks and monuments in 
Wyoming thereafter except by congressional authorization. 

After this bitter and protracted controversy, presidential procla- 
mation of large scientific national monuments virtually ceased out- 

44 



side Wyoming as well. In the 35 years after Jackson Hole was 
proclaimed, only two more natural monuments were so established: 
Buck Island Reef in the Virgin Islands, containing only 850 acres, 
ordered by President John F. Kennedy in 1961; and Marble Canyon, 
Arizona, with 25,962 acres, proclaimed by President Lyndon B. John- 
son on his last day in office in 1969. (Johnson declined to approve a 
proposed Gates of the Arctic National Monument in Alaska containing 
4,1 19,000 acres, a Mount McKinley National Monument of 2,202,000 
acres adjoining the national park, and a Sonoran Desert National 
Monument containing 911,700 acres in Arizona.) By its ability to 
withhold appropriations from areas not of its making, Congress 
largely nullified such use of the Antiquities Act. The major exception 
was President Jimmy Carter's proclamation of 11 Alaska monuments 
for the National Park System in 1978 after Congress adjourned 
without approving related park legislation — a very special case. 

The Jackson Hole controversy was accompanied by mounting 
pressure from various interests, especially in the West, to open up 
protected natural resources in the System for use during periods of 
national emergency. During World War II timber interests sought 
permission to log scarce Sitka spruce in Olympic National Park for 
airplane manufacture. Livestock interests pressed to reopen many 
areas for grazing. Mining companies wanted to search for copper in 
Grand Canyon and Mount Rainier, manganese in Shenandoah, and 
tungsten in Yosemite. The military services requested use of park 
lands for various purposes. In 1942 and 1943 the Service issued 528 
permits to the War and Navy departments for such activities as 
mountain warfare training at Mount Rainier, desert training at Joshua 
Tree, and equipment testing in Arctic conditions at Mount McKinley. 
Director Drury, supported by Secretary of the Interior Harold L. 
Ickes, successfully defended the basic integrity of the System in the 
face of these exceptional pressures, permitting as a last resort only 
those uses essential to prosecution of the war for which other sites 
were unavailable. 

With the end of World War II a new round of threats to the System 
accompanied the accelerated development of river basins by the 
Corps of Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation. The proposed 
Bridge Canyon Dam on the Colorado River would have created a 
reservoir through all of Grand Canyon National Monument and 18 
miles of the adjacent national park; Glacier View Dam on the 
Flathead River in Montana threatened to flood 20,000 acres of 
Glacier National Park; Echo Park and Split Mountain dams on the 
Green and Yampa rivers were expected to inundate long stretches of 
wilderness canyons in Dinosaur National Monument; and the reser- 

45 



voir behind the proposed Mining City Dam on Kentucky's Green 
River would have periodically flooded the underground Echo River 
in Mammoth Cave National Park. Such proposals recalled the single 
greatest disaster previously to befall an established national park: the 
damming of Yosemite's Hetch Hetchy Valley for a reservoir serving 
San Francisco. In the face of strong opposition and national contro- 
versy, conservation organizations and the Service — generally though 
not always working together— managed to meet these and similar 
threats and bring the System through the period relatively unscathed. 

The increased pressures for natural resource use and the decreased 
pool of available lands with national park potential contributed to the 
limited increase of natural areas from 1933 through 1963. As noted, 
only three entirely new national parks were established during these 
30 years. Everglades in Florida was authorized in 1934 to protect the 
largest tropical wilderness in the United States; it was the only 
national park in the far southeastern states until 1980 and remains the 
only one of its kind. Big Bend was authorized a year later to 
encompass more than 700,000 acres of unique wilderness country in 
southwestern Texas, including the Chisos Mountains and three 
magnificent canyons in the great bend of the Rio Grande. Virgin 
Islands National Park was authorized in 1956 to protect nearly 
two-thirds of the land mass and most of the colorful offshore waters 
of St. John Island. The park owes its existence to the financial 
support of Jackson Hole Preserve, Inc., and Laurence S. Rockefeller. 
A fourth new area, Theodore Roosevelt National Memorial Park, 
was established in 1947 and redesignated a national park in 1978. It 
includes scenic badlands along the Little Missouri River and part of 
Roosevelt's Elkhorn Ranch in North Dakota. 

Although incorporating or deriving from existing holdings, three 
other national parks, besides Grand Teton, were essentially new by 
virtue of major land additions or other factors. Olympic National 
Park, formed around the nucleus of Mount Olympus National 
Monument, was established in 1938 over the bitter opposition of 
timber companies after an ardent campaign by conservationists, 
strongly supported by Secretary Ickes and President Roosevelt. After 
a 50-year struggle with power and irrigation interests, lumbermen, 
ranchers, and hunters, Kings Canyon National Park — incorporating 
the General Grant National Park dating from 1890— was finally 
established in 1940 to protect some 460,136 acres of outstanding 
mountain and canyon wilderness on the west slope of the Sierra 
Nevada. Finally, the famous crater of 10,023-foot Haleakala on the 
island of Maui was taken from Hawaii National Park in 1960 and 
placed in a separate Haleakala National Park. 

46 



Four previously authorized national parks were formally estab- 
lished during the period after sufficient lands were acquired from 
nonfederal sources: Great Smoky Mountains in 1934, Shenandoah in 
1935, Isle Royale in 1940, and Mammoth Cave in 1941. And President 
Roosevelt ordered significant additions to several existing national 
monuments before the Jackson Hole proclamation controversy forced 
an effective moratorium on such actions. Death Valley was expanded 
by nearly 306,000 acres in 1937; 203,885 acres containing the 
spectacular wild canyons of the Yampa and Green rivers were added 
to Dinosaur in 1938; Glacier Bay received an additional 905,000 acres 
for wildlife and glacier protection in 1939; and 150,000 acres were 
added to Badlands that year. 

Partly because of the increasing difficulty of adding new natural 
areas to the National Park System, the Service launched a Registered 
Natural Landmarks Program in 1962 to recognize and encourage the 
preservation of nationally significant natural lands outside the System. 
In 1964 Secretary of the Interior Stewart L. Udall announced the first 
seven areas found eligible for natural landmark registry: Mianus 
River Gorge and Bergen Swamp, New York; Corkscrew Swamp 
Sanctuary, Florida; Elder Creek and Rancho La Brea-Hancock Park, 
California; Fontenelle Forest, Nebraska; and Wissahickon Valley, 
Pennsylvania. Another means was thus found to help strengthen 
environmental conservation in the United States. 

Historical Areas In contrast to the relatively few new natural 
areas, 71 more historical (including prehistoric) areas came to the 
National Park System between 1933 and 1963. Three ultimately were 
incorporated in other units and two were removed from the System, 
leaving 66 remaining today from the period. This remarkable increase 
in the System's historical areas, coming on top of the many acquired 
in the 1933 reorganization, was spurred by another landmark legisla- 
tive enactment — the Historic Sites Act of 1935. 

In November 1933 President Roosevelt invited his Washington 
neighbor, Gist Blair of Blair House, to consider "some kind of plan 
which would coordinate the broad relationship of the Federal 
government to State and local interest in the maintenance of historic 
sources and places throughout the country. I am struck with the fact 
that there is no definite, broad policy in this matter." Roosevelt 
advised Blair to visit the Interior Department and discuss the possible 
need for legislation. Through the efforts of many persons— including 
Blair and his associates in the Society of Colonial Wars, W.A.R. 
Goodwin of Williamsburg, Secretary Ickes, Assistant Interior Solic- 
itor Rufus G. Poole, Director Arno Cammerer, NPS Chief Historian 



47 



Verne E. Chatelain, Sen. Harry F. Byrd, Sr., of Virginia, and Rep. 
Maury Maverick of Texas— a bill was drafted, amended and passed 
by Congress, and signed by the President on August 21, 1935. 

The Historic Sites Act established "a national policy to preserve 
for public use historic sites, buildings and objects of national signifi- 
cance for the inspiration and benefit of the people of the United 
States." To carry out this policy, the act assigned broad powers and 
duties to the Secretary of the Interior and the National Park Service. 
They were to survey historic properties "for the purpose of deter- 
mining which possess exceptional value as commemorating or illus- 
trating the history of the United States." They were authorized to 
conduct research; to restore, preserve, and maintain historic proper- 
ties directly or through cooperative agreements with other parties; 
and to mark properties, establish and maintain related museums, and 
engage in other interpretive activities for public education. And there 
was a general authorization for acquiring historic properties— pro- 
vided that no Federal funds were obligated in advance of congres- 
sional appropriations. 

The restrictive provision, from a House amendment to the draft 
bill prepared by Interior, effectively curtailed the envisioned addition 
of properties to the National Park System by secretarial action alone. 
The Secretary could and did designate "national historic sites" 
outside the System and accept donation of such properties, but unless 
and until Congress provided funds for acquiring sites not donated and 
for administering those that were, the Service could offer little more 
than moral support. Several additions during the period, including 
Jefferson National Expansion Memorial, Missouri; Salem Maritime, 
Massachusetts; Federal Hall and Vanderbilt Mansion, New York; 
Hampton, Maryland; and Golden Spike, Utah; were initially made 
national historic sites by secretarial designation under the Historic 
Sites Act and were later brought into the System by congressional 
authorization. 

Although the act was of limited value by itself in enlarging the 
System, its provision for a historic site survey — institutionalized 
within the Service as the National Survey of Historic Sites and Build- 
ings—proved effective in identifying potential additions. Another 
product of the act, the Secretary's Advisory Board on National Parks, 
Historic Sites, Buildings, and Monuments (now the National Park 
System Advisory Board), used outside experts in the cultural and 
natural resource disciplines to review selected properties and to 
recommend those found nationally significant for secretarial designa- 
tion or inclusion in the System. 

A small number of national historic sites resulting from secretarial 

48 



designations were never brought under Service administration and 
are now classed as "affiliated areas" of the System. Beginning in I960, 
most outside properties surveyed and found nationally significant 
were named "national historic landmarks," the historic site designa- 
tion having become closely identified with Service control. The 
National Historic Landmarks Program, like the Registered Natural 
Landmarks Program that it inspired, became an important Service 
tool for recognizing and encouraging preservation of outstanding 
properties regardless of ownership. And it continued the valuable 
function of identifying those few most important areas that might 
then or later warrant inclusion in the System. From Secretary of the 
Interior Fred A. Seaton's initial announcement of 92 historic sites 
and buildings eligible for landmark designation in 1960, the landmark 
list had grown to more than 1 ,600 properties by 1984. 

The volume of historical additions to the System from 1933 to 1963 
will allow mention here of significant examples only. The first 
national historic site, so designated by Secretary Ickes four months 
after the Historic Sites Act, was Jefferson National Expansion 
Memorial National Historic Site in St. Louis. Occupying 37 city 
blocks on the Mississippi riverfront, it was also the first major urban 
responsibility of the Park Service outside the National Capital Parks. 
The historic site designation in this atypical instance was a means of 
providing Federal funds for urban renewal and a modern memorial to 
western expansion. Most of the area was cleared, and the soaring 
Gateway Arch designed by Eero Saarinen was constructed as its 
centerpiece in the 1960s. 

In 1948, responding to recommendations of a study commission, 
Congress authorized another major historical project in an urban 
setting— Independence National Historical Park in Philadelphia. 
One of the most important historic districts in the United States, the 
park encompasses Independence Hall, Congress Hall, Carpenters 
Hall, and other sites and buildings intimately associated with the 
winning of American independence and the establishment of govern- 
ment under the Constitution. In 1959 it was enlarged by incorpora- 
tion of the old Philadelphia Custom House (Second Bank of the 
United States), which had been designated a national historic site 
20 years before. A commission also was established for New York 
City, where Federal Hall, Castle Clinton, the General Grant Memo- 
rial, Hamilton Grange, Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace, and the out- 
lying Sagamore Hill joined the Statue of Liberty under Service 
administration. In the Boston area, Minute Man National Historical 
Park was authorized in 1959 to include sites of the opening engage- 
ments of the American Revolution. 



49 



Eight Presidents of the United States were honored by additions 
during the period, furthering a trend that would ultimately number 
presidential sites second only to battlefields in the historical ranks of 
the System. The Thomas Jefferson Memorial in Washington was 
authorized in 1934 and completed nine years later. Andrew Johnson's 
home and tailor shop in Greeneville, Tennessee, were acquired in 
1935. Franklin D. Roosevelt's Hyde Park estate was designated a 
national historic site in 1944 and donated after his death a year later. 
The home of John Adams and his son John Quincy in Qiiincy, Massa- 
chusetts, followed in 1946. Theodore Roosevelt National Memorial 
Park, North Dakota, was established in 1947; although containing 
part of Roosevelt's ranch, it was predominantly natural rather than 
historical and was relabeled a national park in 1978. Two other 
Theodore Roosevelt sites, his birthplace in Manhattan and Sagamore 
Hill at Oyster Bay, New York, were given to the United States in 
1962. Ulysses S. Grant's tomb came into the System as General Grant 
National Memorial in 1959 and another Abraham Lincoln site, 
Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial, was accepted from the State of 
Indiana in 1962. 

The first new battlefield park to be authorized was Monocacy, 
scene of a Civil War engagement in Maryland; but the lands were not 
donated as expected, and the site remained outside the System until 
Congress reauthorized its acquisition with appropriated funds in 1976. 
Other Civil War battlefield additions were more readily achieved; 
Richmond, Virginia, authorized in 1936; Manassas, Virginia, in 1940; 
Pea Ridge, Arkansas, in 1956; and Wilson's Creek, Missouri, in 1960. 
Saratoga National Historical Park, New York, was authorized in 1938 
to commemorate a decisive Revolutionary War battle. Two more new 
units treated military-Indian engagements; the National Cemetery of 
Custer's Battlefield Reservation, Montana, was transferred from the 
War Department in 1940 and redesignated Custer Battlefield National 
Monument in 1946; and Horseshoe Bend National Military Park, 
Alabama, was authorized in 1956 to preserve the site of General 
Andrew Jackson's 1814 defeat of the Creeks. 

And there were more forts. Fort Jefferson, Florida, the largest 
all-masonry fortification in the western hemisphere, was proclaimed 
a national monument in 1935. Congress authorized Fort Stanwix 
National Monument, New York, the same year, but the Service did 
not acquire the site on which it later reconstructed the colonial 
and Revolutionary War fort until 1973. Fort Sumter at Charleston, 
South Carolina, was transferred to the Park Service in 1948 when that 
famous Civil War landmark was no longer needed for military 
purposes. Beginning in 1938 with Fort Laramie, Wyoming, a new 

50 



array of historic western military and fur-trading posts joined the 
System, including Fort Vancouver, Washington, in 1948; Fort Union, 
New Mexico, in 1954; Bent's Old Fort, Colorado, in 1960; Fort Davis, 
Texas, in 1961; and Fort Smith, Arkansas, in 1961. 

Although sites representing political and military history pre- 
dominated, a few more areas addressing other themes were admitted 
during the period. Several were significant in commerce, industry, 
transportation, or other aspects of economic history. Salem Mari- 
time National Historic Site, Massachusetts, preserves remnants of a 
seaport important during the colonial and early national eras. Hope- 
well Village was an early Pennsylvania ironmaking community. The 
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal in the District of Columbia and Mary- 
land—acquired by the Service in 1938, proclaimed a national monu- 
ment by President Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1961, and authorized for 
major expansion as a national historical park by Congress a decade 
later— is as important to hikers and cyclists as it is to history buffs. 
Harpers Ferry, West Virginia, noted for the 1859 John Brown Raid 
and Civil War activity, is also highly significant in the history of 
manufacturing. Edison National Historic Site, formed in 1962 from 
the previously designated Edison Home National Historic Site and 
Edison Laboratory National Monument, comprises the master inven- 
tor's last laboratory and residence. Another landmark transportation 
site, where the first transcontinental railroad was joined in 1869, 
became Golden Spike National Historic Site by secretarial designa- 
tion in 1957; Congress later authorized its addition to the System. 

Three other acquisitions commemorated the lives and contribu- 
tions of noted black Americans. George Washington Carver National 
Monument, at the scientist-teacher's Missouri birthplace, was author- 
ized by Congress just after his death in 1943. Booker T. Washington, 
who headed Tuskegee Institute where Carver taught, was similarly 
honored at his Virginia birthplace in 1956. And the Washington, 
D.C., home of Frederick Douglass, the leading black spokesman of 
the 19th century, was taken into the System in 1962. 

Recreational Areas Toward the latter part of this period the 
Service had to deal increasingly with a new group of areas that for a 
time were legally excluded from the National Park System. A 1953 
act of Congress defined the System as comprising "all federally 
owned or controlled lands which are administered under the direc- 
tion of the Secretary of the Interior in accordance with the provisions 
of the Act of August 25, 1916 . . . , and which are grouped into the 
following descriptive categories: (1) National parks, (2) national 
monuments, (3) national historical parks | interpreted to include 

51 



national historic sites and battlefields], (4) national memorials, (5) 
national parkways, and (6) national capital parks/' Omitted from this 
official definition of the System were reservoir-based areas and 
others, administered in whole or part by the National Park Service, 
that did not fall into the named categories. These "miscellaneous 
areas," as the act termed them, and the national parkways came to be 
classified as recreational areas. 

Less definitive than the natural and historical area categories, the 
recreational area classification was an administrative convenience 
for units that did not readily fit the others. Their natural resources 
often did not meet the standards of national significance expected of 
the national parks and monuments. Many were centered on artificial 
lakes or were intended to be developed and used for mass public 
recreation rather than having resource preservation as their para- 
mount purpose. And they often permitted hunting or other activities 
traditionally barred from the parks. Although most such areas were 
legally excluded from the System in 1953, a 1970 amendment 
redefined the System to encompass all areas administered by the 
Service "for park, monument, historic, parkway, recreational, or 
other purposes." 

Between 1933 and 1963 the Service acquired responsibility for 16 
units that would be classed as recreational areas, 13 of which remain 
as discrete components of the System today. 

Service involvement with recreational areas stemmed in major part 
from widened responsibilities outside the System assigned the bureau 
during the Depression. Included was administration of several hun- 
dred Civilian Conservation Corps camps in state parks. The Service 
had actively encouraged the state park movement ever since Stephen 
T. Mather helped organize the National Conference on State Parks in 
1921, so it was logical for it to assume national direction of Emer- 
gency Conservation Work in those parks when that program was 
launched in 1933. The program was led by Assistant Director Conrad 
L. Wirth, later director. 

Most states lacked any park system plans, leading the Service to 
advocate comprehensive new planning legislation. The resulting 
Park, Parkway, and Recreation Area Study Act of 1936 enabled the 
Service, working with others, to plan coordinated and adequate 
parklands and facilities at Federal, state, and local levels throughout 
the country. In 1941 the bureau published its first comprehensive 
report under the act, A Study of the Park and Recreation Problem in 
the United States. Interrupted by World War II, these planning 
studies resumed with the inception of Mission 66, and a second 
comprehensive report appeared in 1964 titled Parks for America: A 



52 



Survey of Park and Related Resources in the Fifty States and a 
Preliminary Plan. Numerous land planning studies of individual 
areas, river basins, and regions accompanied and supported these 
reports. 

The recommendations in these studies were used as guidelines for 
the Service as well, and the new recreational areas for which the 
Service assumed responsibility during the period were generally 
consistent with these aims. 

One of the new types of area was the parkway, a carefully designed 
and landscaped limited access road, buffered by parkland, intended 
for recreational motoring rather than high-speed travel. Automobile 
parkways originated with those built in Westchester County, New 
York, between 1913 and 1930. Congress had authorized the first Fed- 
eral parkway project in 1913, the four-mile Rock Creek and Potomac 
Parkway connecting Potomac Park with Rock Creek Park and the 
National Zoological Park in the District of Columbia. The road was 
not built until later, however, and the small parkway was and is 
counted as a component of National Capital Parks rather than a full- 
fledged unit of the National Park System. 

In 1928 Congress authorized what became the first parkway area of 
the System: the Mount Vernon Memorial Highway linking the 
District of Columbia with Mount Vernon, to be completed for the 
bicentennial of George Washington's birth in 1932. Retitled George 
Washington Memorial Parkway in 1930, the project was enlarged to 
encompass both sides of the Potomac upriver to Great Falls, but it 
has never been completed as envisioned. As noted in the preceding 
chapter, the parkway was transferred to the National Park Service in 
the 1933 reorganization. During World War II the national capital 
parkway network was expanded with the authorization of Suitland 
Parkway, a landscaped access road to Andrews Air Force Base, and 
the Baltimore-Washington Parkway, whose initial unit provided 
access to Fort George G. Meade. These roads were included in the 
System after the war, but since 1975 they have been classed as 
elements of National Capital Parks rather than separate units. 

Colonial Parkway in Virginia was the first authorized by Congress 
outside the Washington, D.C., vicinity. It provided a 23-mile scenic 
drive between the Jamestown and Yorktown ends of Colonial National 
Monument (later Colonial National Historical Park), authorized in 
1930. It too lacks separate area status, being treated as a component 
of its associated park. 

A new era for national parkways began with authorization of the 
Blue Ridge and Natchez Trace parkways in 1933 and 1934. These 
were not parkways serving primarily local traffic but protected 



53 



recreational roadways traversing great stretches of scenic and his- 
toric rural landscape. Begun as public works projects during the New 
Deal, they were soon made units of the National Park System. 

The Skyline Drive in Shenandoah National Park was the prototype 
for the Blue Ridge Parkway. President Herbert Hoover, whose 
vacation camp on the headwaters of the Rapidan River was donated 
to the park, personally promoted the spectacular Shenandoah road- 
way. It was planned in 1931 and begun as a relief project in 1932. 

After Franklin Roosevelt's inauguration Congress quickly passed 
the National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933 to stimulate the 
economy. Among other provisions it authorized the Public Works 
Administrator, Secretary Ickes, to prepare a comprehensive program 
of public works including the construction and improvement of 
roads. Sen. Harry F. Byrd, Sr., aided by others, seized the opportunity 
to propose a scenic parkway linking Shenandoah and Great Smoky 
Mountains national parks. Roosevelt and Ickes embraced the pro- 
posal, Virginia and North Carolina agreed to donate the rights-of- 
way, and that December the Service received an initial $4 million 
allotment for the project. Jointly planned by the Service and the 
Bureau of Public Roads, it was named the Blue Ridge Parkway and 
legally added to the System in 1936. 

The Blue Ridge Parkway is widely considered a triumph in 
parkway design, providing motorists with a serene environment for 
leisurely travel through the beauty of the southern highlands. The 
469-mile road alternates sweeping views of mountain and valley with 
intimate glimpses of Appalachian flora and fauna and preserved and 
reconstructed log structures of the mountain people. Nearly com- 
pleted by 1963, the parkway was and is the best known and most 
heavily used recreational area added to the System during the period. 

The second major national parkway was projected to follow the 
general route of the historic Natchez Trace from Nashville, Tennes- 
see, to Natchez, Mississippi. During the early 19th century the Indian 
trace became a major trail binding the Old Southwest to the rest of 
the country. In 1934 Congress authorized a survey for the purpose of 
constructing a Natchez Trace Parkway along the route. The Service 
assumed responsibility for construction and administration in 1938. 
By 1963 about half the planned 449 miles of roadway was in place. 
Today, fewer than 84 miles remain unbuilt. Features linked by the 
completed portions include Mount Locust, the earliest surviving inn 
on the trace, and Emerald Mound, one of the largest prehistoric 
ceremonial structures in the United States. 

Proposals for other parkways proliferated during the 1930s and 
many were revived after World War II. Among those advanced and 

54 



studied were extensions of the Blue Ridge Parkway northeast to 
Maine and southwest to Georgia; extensions of the George Wash- 
ington Memorial Parkway northwest along the length of the Chesa- 
peake and Ohio Canal and southeast to Wakefield (Washington's 
birthplace) and Williamsburg; a Washington-to-Gettysburg parkway; 
a Mississippi River parkway; and an Oglethorpe National Trail and 
Parkway from Augusta to Savannah, Georgia. 

As late as 1964 the Recreation Advisory Council recommended a 
national program of scenic roads and parkways, and the Commerce 
Department proposed $4 billion for their construction between 1966 
and 1976. The Vietnam War intervened, but there was also growing 
opposition to parkways on their merits. The Wilderness Society had 
been organized in 1935 partly to protest such ridgecrest roadways as 
the Skyline Drive and Blue Ridge Parkway, which its members 
viewed as intolerable intrusions on the natural environment. Only a 
small voice in 1935, the society grew to become the most influential 
citizen force behind the Wilderness Act of 1964 that, among other 
purposes, was intended to keep wilderness roadless. Perhaps the most 
memorable anti-parkway campaign was led by William O. Douglas, 
Supreme Court justice and wilderness advocate who led the fight against 
the proposal in 1954 to turn the C&O Canal into a four-lane highway. 
Such stands by conservationists combined with economic considera- 
tions virtually halted new parkway construction by the mid-1960s. 

Besides the Blue Ridge Parkway, two other units of today's 
National Park System trace their origins to the National Industrial 
Recovery Act, although we date them from their transfer to the 
Service in 1936: Catoctin Mountain Park, Maryland, and Prince 
William Forest Park, Virginia. 

The act authorized Federal purchase of lands considered submar- 
ginal for farming but suitable for recreation. After acquisition by the 
Federal Emergency Relief Administration, they were transferred to 
the Resettlement Administration and then to the National Park 
Service as recreation demonstration projects. By 1936, 46 projects 
incorporating 397,000 acres had been set up in 24 states, many near 
metropolitan areas. From the beginning it was intended that most 
projects would be turned over to states and cities for operation, and 
in 1942 Congress provided the necessary authority. By 1946 most of 
the conveyances had been completed, but the Service retained por- 
tions of several areas. In most cases the retained lands were added 
to existing units of the System, such as Acadia, Shenandoah, White 
Sands, and Hopewell Village, but the Catoctin and Chopawamsic rec- 
reation demonstration areas kept their individual identities. Chopa- 
wamsic was retitled Prince William Forest Park in 1948; the retained 



55 



part of Catoctin, surrounding the presidential retreat Shangri-La 
(now Camp David), became Catoctin Mountain Park in 1954. 

As has been noted, fierce conservation battles were fought during 
the period against dam proposals that threatened to inundate 
unspoiled canyons in and near certain national parks and monu- 
ments. There was some displeasure, then, when the Service joined 
forces with the dam builders to administer recreational developments 
and activities at major impoundments. 

Lake Mead in Nevada and Arizona was the first of these involve- 
ments and the first unit of the System bearing the "national recrea- 
tion area" designation. The Boulder Canyon Project Act of 1928 
authorized the Bureau of Reclamation to construct Hoover Dam on 
the Colorado River. Work began in 1931 and the dam, highest in the 
western hemisphere, was completed in 1935. The next year, under 
provisions of an agreement with Reclamation, the Service assumed 
responsibility for all recreational activities at what was initially 
designated Boulder Dam National Recreation Area. 

The responsibility became a major one, for Lake Mead at capacity 
is 115 miles long with 550 miles of shoreline. The Service developed 
numerous facilities for camping, boating, and swimming. By 1952 
Davis Dam had been built downstream, impounding the 67-mile-long 
Lake Mohave, and the Service assumed similar functions there. The 
total Lake Mead National Recreation Area, as it was retitled in 1947, 
covers both lakes and surrounding lands totaling nearly 1,500,000 
acres. It is the largest area of its designation in the System today. 

The second such unit, Coulee Dam National Recreation Area in 
Washington, was established in 1946 under an agreement with the 
Bureau of Reclamation patterned after that for Lake Mead. Franklin 
D. Roosevelt Lake, impounded by the Grand Coulee Dam built 
between 1933 and 1941, is 151 miles long with a shoreline of 660 
miles. The Service developed campgrounds, marinas, bathing facili- 
ties, and other amenities at 35 locations around the lake. Two other 
areas still in the System benefited from similar Service involvement 
during the period: Glen Canyon National Recreation Area in Arizona 
and Utah beginning in 1958 and Whiskeytown-Shasta-Trinity National 
Recreation Area, California, in 1962. 

The National Park Service made its first seashore recreation survey 
in 1934. It resulted in recommendations that 12 major stretches of 
unspoiled Atlantic and Gulf Coast shoreline be preserved as national 
areas. Twenty years later only one had been acquired — Cape Hatteras 
National Seashore, North Carolina. Most of the others had been 
invaded by commercial and residential development. Seashore studies 
were resumed in the mid-1950s with the generous support of the 

56 



Mellon family foundations. They yielded several reports including 
Our Vanishing Shoreline (1955), A Report on the Seashore Recrea- 
tion Survey of the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts (1955), Our Fourth 
Shore: Great Lakes Shoreline Recreation Area Survey (1959), and 
Pacific Coast Recreation Area Survey (1959). Detailed studies of 
individual projects also were prepared as part of the Service's 
continuing efforts for shoreline conservation. By 1963 the fruits of 
this program included three more national seashores on the Atlantic, 
Gulf, and Pacific coasts. 

The first national seashore, Cape Hatteras, was authorized by 
Congress in 1937 but land acquisition lagged until after World War II. 
Then the Mellon foundations made substantial grants which, matched 
by the State of North Carolina, enabled purchase of the needed lands. 
The seashore encompasses almost 100 miles of barrier islands and 
beaches, providing an outstanding natural resource base for surf 
bathing, sport fishing, bird watching, nature study, and other active 
and passive recreational activities. 

Cape Cod National Seashore, authorized in 1961, protects the dunes 
and marshes of Cape Cod's outer arm along a 40-mile strip. It was the 
first large natural or recreational area for which Congress at the out- 
set permitted the use of appropriated funds for land acquisition. 
Another novel provision of the Cape Cod legislation prevented the 
Secretary of the Interior from exercising the power of eminent domain 
to acquire private improved property once local jurisdictions had 
adopted and enforced zoning regulations meeting his approval. This 
arrangement forestalled serious conflicts between the Government 
and local communities and helped stabilize the landscape without 
forced resettlement of numerous families. It was an important prece- 
dent for legislation authorizing other such additions to the System. 

Point Reyes and Padre Island national seashores followed two 
weeks apart in 1962. Point Reyes would incorporate more than 40 
miles of Pacific shoreline north of San Francisco, including Drakes 
Bay and Tomales Point. Padre Island National Seashore covers 20 
miles of the long Texas barrier island on the Gulf of Mexico. These 
far-flung seashore acquisitions brought to the Service truly national 
responsibilities for coastal preservation and recreation. 

Greenbelt Park, Maryland, like Catoctin and Prince William parks, 
lacks "national" designation but is listed today as a unit of the System. 
It was transferred from the Public Housing Authority in 1950 when the 
adjoining Baltimore-Washington Parkway was acquired from the 
Bureau of Public Roads. The suburban park offers camping for visi- 
tors to the Washington area and trails and other recreational oppor- 
tunities for regional residents. 

57 



National Park System Additions 1933-1963 



1933 

June 16 Blue Ridge Parkway, North Carolina and Virginia (date of 
authorization; acquired by NPS 1936) 
Aug. 22 Cedar Breaks NM, Utah 
1934 

May 30 Everglades NP, Florida 
June 14 Ocmulgee NM, Georgia 

June 19 Natchez Trace Parkway, Mississippi, Alabama, and Tennessee 
(date of authorization; acquired by NPS 1938) 

June 21 Monocacy NMP, Maryland (reauthorized and redesignated a 
NB 1976) 

June 26 Thomas Jefferson Memorial, District of Columbia 
1935 

Jan. 4 Fort Jefferson NM, Florida 
June 20 Big Bend NP, Texas 

Aug. 21 Fort Stanwix NM, New York (date authorized; acquired 1973) 
Aug. 29 Andrew Johnson NM, Tennessee (redesignated a NHS 1963) 
Dec. 20 Jefferson National Expansion Memorial NHS, Missouri 
(memorial authorized 1954) 
1936 

March 2 Richmond NBP, Virginia 
March 19 Homestead NM of America, Nebraska 
May 26 Fort Frederica NM, Georgia 

June 2 Perry's Victory and International Peace Memorial NM, Ohio 
(redesignated Perry's Victory and International Peace Memorial 1972) 
June 29 Whitman Mission NM, Washington (redesignated a NHS 
1963) 

Aug. 16 Joshua Tree NM, California 

Oct. 13 Boulder Dam NRA, Nevada and Arizona (redesignated Lake 
Mead NRA 1947) 

Nov. 14 Catoctin Recreation Demonstration Area, Maryland (redesig- 
nated Catoctin Mountain Park 1954) 

Nov. 14 Chopawamsic Recreation Demonstration Area, Virginia 
(redesignated Prince William Forest Park 1948) 
1937 

April 13 Organ Pipe Cactus NM, Arizona 
Aug. 2 Capitol Reef NM, Utah (redesignated a NP 1971 ) 
Aug. 17 Cape Hatteras NS, North Carolina 
Aug. 25 Pipestone NM, Minnesota 

58 



1938 

March 17 Salem Maritime NHS, Massachusetts 
April 26 Channel Islands NM, California (incorporated in Channel 
Islands NP 1980) 
June 1 Saratoga NHP, New York 

June 29 Olympic NP, Washington (incorporated Mount Olympus NM) 
July 16 Fort Laramie NM, Wyoming (redesignated a NHS 1960) 
Aug. 3 Hopewell Village NHS, Pennsylvania 
Sept. 23 Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, District of Columbia and 
Maryland (designated a NM 1961; incorporated in Chesapeake and 
Ohio Canal NHP 1971) 
1939 

May 26 Federal Hall Memorial NHS, New York (redesignated 
Federal Hall NMem 1955) 

May 26 Philadelphia Custom House NHS, Pennsylvania (incorpo- 
rated in Independence NHP 1959) 

July 1 Mount Rushmore NMem, South Dakota (date of NPS acquisition) 
July 25 Tuzigoot NM, Arizona 
1940 

March 4 Kings Canyon NP, California (incorporated General Grant NP) 
May 10 Manassas NBP, Virginia 

June 1 1 Cumberland Gap NHP, Kentucky, Virginia, and Tennessee 
July 1 National Cemetery of Custer's Battlefield Reservation, Montana 
(date of NPS acquisition; redesignated Custer Battlefield NM 1946) 
Aug. 12 Fort Washington Park, Maryland (date of NPS acquisition ) 
Dec. 18 Vanderbilt Mansion NHS, New York 
1941 

April 5 Fort Raleigh NHS, North Carolina 
1943 

March 15 Jackson Hole NM, Wyoming (incorporated in new Grand 
Teton NP 1950) 

July 14 George Washington Carver NM, Missouri 
1944 

Jan. 15 Home of Franklin D. Roosevelt NHS, New York 
June 30 Harpers Ferry NM, West Virginia, Maryland, and Virginia 
(redesignated a NHP 1963) 

Oct. 13 Atlanta Campaign NHS, Georgia (abolished 1950) 
1946 
Aug. 12 Castle Clinton NM, New York 

59 



Dec. 9 Adams Mansion NHS, Massachusetts (redesignated Adams 

NHS 1952) 

Dec. 18 Coulee Dam NRA, Washington 

1947 

April 25 Theodore Roosevelt NMemP, North Dakota (redesignated a 

NP 1978) 

1948 

March 11 DeSoto NMem, Florida 

June 19 Fort Vancouver NM, Washington (redesignated a NHS 1961) 

June 22 Hampton NHS, Maryland 

June 28 Independence NHP, Pennsylvania 

July 12 Fort Sumter NM, South Carolina (date of acquisition from Army) 

1949 

Feb. 14 San Juan NHS, Puerto Rico 

June 8 Saint Croix Island NM, Maine (redesignated an International 

Historic Site 1984) 

Aug. 17 Suitland Parkway, Maryland and District of Columbia (date 

of NPS acquisition; incorporated in National Capital Parks 1975) 

Oct. 25 Effigy Mounds NM, Iowa 

1950 

Aug. 3 Baltimore-Washington Parkway, Maryland (date of NPS 

acquisition; incorporated in National Capital Parks 1975) 

Aug. 3 Greenbelt Park, Maryland 

Sept. 14 Grand Teton NP, Wyoming (incorporated 1929 NP and 

Jackson Hole NM) 

Sept. 21 Fort Caroline NMem, Florida 

1951 

Sept. 15 Grand Portage NHS, Minnesota (redesignated a NM 1958) 

1952 

March 4 Virgin Islands NHS, Virgin Islands (redesignated 

Christiansted NHS 1961) 

June 27 Shadow Mountain NRA, Colorado (transferred to USFS 1978) 

July 9 Coronado NMem, Arizona 

1954 

June 28 Fort Union NM, New Mexico 

1955 

July 26 City of Refuge NHP, Hawaii (redesignated Pu'uhonua o 

HonaunauNHP 1978) 

Dec. 6 Edison Home NHS, New Jersey (incorporated in Edison NHS 1962) 

60 



1956 

April 2 Booker T. Washington NM, Virginia 

July 14 Edison Laboratory NM, New Jersey (incorporated in Edison 

NHS 1962) 

July 20 Pea Ridge NMP, Arkansas 

July 25 Horseshoe Bend NMP, Alabama 

Aug. 2 Virgin Islands NP, Virgin Islands 

1957 

April 2 Golden Spike NHS, Utah (acquisition authorized 1965) 

1958 

April 18 Glen Canyon NRA, Utah and Arizona 

May 29 Fort Clatsop NMem, Oregon 

1959 

April 14 Minute Man NHS, Massachusetts (redesignated a NHP Sept. 21) 

Aug. 14 General Grant NMem, New York (date of NPS acquisition) 

1960 

April 22 Wilson's Creek NBP, Missouri (redesignated a NB 1970) 

June 3 Bent's Old Fort NHS, Colorado 

July 6 Arkansas Post NMem, Arkansas 

Sept. 13 Haleakala NP, Hawaii (detached from Hawaii NP) 

Dec. 24 St. Thomas NHS, Virgin Islands (abolished 1975) 

1961 

May 1 1 Russell Cave NM, Alabama 

Aug. 7 Cape Cod NS, Massachusetts 

Sept. 8 Fort Davis NHS, Texas 

Sept. 13 Fort Smith NHS, Arkansas 

Oct. 4 Piscataway Park, Maryland 

Dec. 28 Buck Island Reef NM, Virgin Islands 

1962 

Feb. 19 Lincoln Boyhood NMem, Indiana 

April 27 Hamilton Grange NMem, New York 

May 31 Whiskeytown-Shasta-Trinity NRA, California (WhiskeytownUnit) 

July 25 Sagamore Hill NHS, New York 

July 25 Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace NHS, New York 

Sept. 5 Edison NHS, New Jersey (incorporated Edison Home NHS 

and Edison Laboratory NM) 

Sept. 5 Frederick Douglass Home, District of Columbia 

Sept. 13 Point Reyes NS, California 

Sept. 28 Padre Island NS, Texas 

61 



The Hartzog Years, 
1964 to 1972 



The nine years from 1964 through 1972 began with the formal ad- 
ministrative division of the National Park System into natural, his- 
torical, and recreational area categories and concluded with the 
centennial observance of the first national park, Yellowstone. Sixty- 
nine of the 334 units present in 1984 were authorized or acquired 
during these 9 years— nearly three-quarters as many as had been 
permanently added in the preceding 30 years. The director during 
these years was George B. Hartzog, Jr., who came to the office at a 
favorable time. Mission 66, the 10-year program of upgrading the 
parks, was coming to an end. Stewart L. Udall, Secretary of the 
Interior, found in Hartzog a willing ally who would push Udall's 
expansionist and activist park policy for President Lyndon B. John- 
son's "Great Society." Backed by a rejuvenated System and his 
Secretary's support, Hartzog was set to put his imprint upon the 
Service. 

On July 10, 1964, Secretary Udall signed a key management policy 
memorandum based on recommendations from Director Hartzog. 
'Tn looking back at the legislative enactments that have shaped the 
National Park System," it said, "it is clear that the Congress has included 
within the growing System three different categories of areas— natural, 
historical, and recreational. . . . Each of these categories requires a 
separate management concept and a separate set of management 
principles coordinated to form one organic management plan for the 
entire System." Natural areas were to be managed for perpetuation 
and restoration of their natural values, although significant historic 
features within a natural area should be maintained "to the extent 
compatible with the primary purpose for which the area was 
established." In historical areas these emphases were reversed. In 
recreational areas, both natural and historic resource preservation 
would be subordinate to management for outdoor recreation. Use of 
such areas would focus on "active participation in outdoor recreation 
in a pleasing environment." 

At the time, as was noted in the last chapter, most areas assigned to 
the recreational category were technically excluded from the National 
Park System by the legal definition of 1953. That law reflected 
concern that if reservoirs and other artificially developed recreation 



62 



facilities were admitted anywhere in the System, they would degrade 
it and might soon invade the traditional parks as well. The Udall 
policy memorandum seemingly violated the 1953 law by granting 
System membership to such areas, but it allayed concern that they 
might taint the natural parks by placing them in a distinct subclass 
with distinct management policies. Separate policy manuals were 
developed for the three area categories and appeared in 1968. Two 
years later law caught up with administrative initiative when Con- 
gress redefined the System to include all areas administered "for 
park, monument, historic, parkway, recreational, or other purposes" 
by the National Park Service. 

The Udall memorandum also prescribed a Service objective "to 
develop the National Park System through inclusion of additional 
areas of scenic, scientific, historical and recreational value to the 
Nation." This perennial mission of the bureau, expansionist from its 
beginnings, was reiterated in the Service policy memorandum signed 
June 18, 1969, by Udall's successor, Secretary Walter J. Hickel: "The 
National Park System should protect and exhibit the best examples of 
our great national landscapes, riverscapes and shores and undersea 
environments; the processes which formed them; the life communi- 
ties that grow and dwell therein; and the important landmarks of our 
history. There are serious gaps and inadequacies which must be 
remedied while opportunities still exist if the System is to fulfill the 
people's need always to see and understand their heritage of history 
and the natural world. 

"You should continue your studies to identify gaps in the System 
and recommend to me areas that would fill them. It is my hope that 
we can make a significant contribution to rounding out more of the 
National Park System in these next few years." 

With this charge in hand, Hartzog ordered preparation of a 
National Park System Plan, published in 1972. The history compo- 
nent of the Plan employed a modified version of the theme structure 
used in studies for identifying national historic landmarks. Historical 
parks were assigned to the various thematic elements, revealing gaps 
wherever the elements were unrepresented in the System. Developed 
to provide the greatest possible rationale for expansion, the history 



63 



component determined that at least 196 new parks were needed to 
treat fully all major facets of American history and prehistory. The 
natural history component of the Plan, taking a similar approach, 
identified more than 300 aspects of natural history requiring initial or 
greater representation in the System. 

Although recreational areas did not lend themselves to the same 
kind of thematic analysis and were not addressed in the Plan, interest 
in them did not wane. Their number doubled from 1964 to 1972. Of 
the 69 new and permanent additions during the Hartzog administra- 
tion, 27 were classed as recreational — three times as many as the 9 
new natural areas and not far behind the 33 new historical units. 

Natural Areas Of the 10 natural areas added during the period, 
1 was later incorporated in an existing national park, leaving 9 
remaining in today's System. Five of these were new national parks. 
This notable achievement would not have happened without vig- 
orous efforts by the Service going back many years, newly awakened 
public and congressional interest, and financial support stemming 
from the Land and Water Conservation Fund Act of 1965. As 
amended in 1968, the act earmarked revenues from visitor fees, 
surplus property sales, motorboat fuel taxes, and offshore oil and gas 
leasing for Federal and state parkland acquisition. 

Canyonlands National Park was established in 1964 to protect a 
wild area of exceptional scenic, scientific, and archeological impor- 
tance at the confluence of the Green and Colorado rivers in 
southeastern Utah. In 1971 President Richard M. Nixon approved 
legislation adding substantial public land to Canyonlands, bringing 
the park's total area to more than 337,000 acres. 

Congress authorized Guadalupe Mountains National Park in 1966 
to preserve an area in west Texas "possessing outstanding geological 
values together with scenic and other natural values of great signifi- 
cance/' Proposed for inclusion in the System as early as 1933, the 
park's mountain mass and adjoining lands cover more than 76,000 
acres and include portions of the world's most extensive Permian 
limestone fossil reef. 

North Cascades National Park, Washington, embraces 504,780 
acres of wild alpine country with jagged peaks, mountain lakes, and 
glaciers. From the start this undertaking was surrounded by intense 
controversy involving timber and mining interests, conservationists, 
local governments, and several Federal bureaus including the Forest 
Service, the Bureau of Outdoor Recreation, and the Park Service. 
The park was finally authorized in 1968 simultaneously with Red- 
wood National Park, California. Redwood, which also followed long 

64 



and bitter controversy, was intended "to preserve significant exam- 
ples of the primeval coastal redwood forests and the streams and 
seashores with which they are associated for purposes of public 
inspiration, enjoyment and scientific study." Within its legislated 
boundaries, enlarged in 1978 to encompass 109,000 acres, are three 
California state parks dating from the 1920s, 30 miles of Pacific 
coastline, and the world's tallest trees. 

The last new national park of the period was Voyageurs, on the 
northern edge of Minnesota, authorized in 1971 to preserve the 
"scenery, geological conditions, and waterway system which consti- 
tuted a part of the historic route of the Voyageurs who contributed 
significantly to the opening of the Northwestern United States." It 
occupies some 220,000 acres of remote northern lake country. 

Besides the five new national parks, two former national monu- 
ments, Arches and Capitol Reef in Utah, were upgraded to national 
park status by legislation in 1971, and a new national monument, 
Biscayne in the upper Florida keys, formed the basis for Biscayne 
National Park in 1980. Three other new monuments— Agate Fossil 
Beds, Nebraska; Florissant Fossil Beds, Colorado; and Fossil Butte, 
Wyoming — were authorized by acts of Congress to preserve out- 
standing deposits of mammal, insect, and fish fossils. The fifth new 
monument, Marble Canyon, was proclaimed by President Johnson to 
protect the 50-mile canyon of the Colorado River between Grand 
Canyon National Park and Glen Canyon National Recreation Area. 
Grand Canyon National Park was enlarged to encompass the monu- 
ment in 1975. 

Of great importance to natural preservation in the System during 
and after this period was the Wilderness Act of September 3, 1964. It 
read in part; kt In order to assure that an increasing population, 
accompanied by expanding settlement and growing mechanization, 
does not occupy and modify all areas within the United States and its 
possessions, leaving no lands designated for preservation and protec- 
tion in their natural condition, it is hereby declared to be the policy of 
the Congress to secure for the American people of present and future 
generations the benefits of an enduring resource of wilderness. For 
this purpose there is hereby established a National Wilderness 
Preservation System to be composed of federally owned areas 
designated by Congress as 'wilderness areas', and these shall be 
administered for the use and enjoyment of the American people in 
such manner as will leave them unimpaired for future use and 
enjoyment as wilderness." 

The act defined wilderness as "an area where the earth and its 
community of life are untrammeled by man, where man himself is a 

65 



visitor who does not remain. " For designation as wilderness an area 
was to be without permanent improvements or human habitation, 
to retain * k its primeval character and influence," and generally to 
contain at least 5,000 acres. Among other provisions, the act directed 
the Secretary of the Interior to review within 10 years every roadless 
area of 5,000 acres or more in the National Park System and report to 
the President on the suitability of each for preservation as wilderness. 
The President would then report his recommendations to Congress 
for action. 

Although many portions of the System were clearly wilderness and 
had long been managed as such, the act forced a careful examination 
of all potentially qualifying lands and consideration as to which 
should be perpetuated indefinitely without roads, use of motorized 
equipment, structures, or other development incompatible with 
formal wilderness designation. By 1972, many areas had been studied 
and two— in Petrified Forest National Park and Craters of the Moon 
National Monument — had been confirmed as wilderness by Congress. 

Historical Areas Historical additions again led the other catego- 
ries, with 35 new or essentially new arrivals in the years 1964-1972. 
Two— Mar-A-Largo National Historic Site and the National Visitor 
Center— were subsequently dropped from the System, leaving 33 
from the period with us today. 

Nearly a quarter of the new historical areas were presidential sites. 
The first, Herbert Hoover National Historic Site in 1965, commemo- 
rated Hoover at his birthplace, childhood home, and burial place in 
West Branch, Iowa. In 1966 the Ansley Wilcox House in Buffalo, New 
York, where Theodore Roosevelt became President after William 
McKinley's assassination, was added to the System, becoming known 
as Theodore Roosevelt Inaugural National Historic Site. The Roose- 
velt memorial on Theodore Roosevelt Island in Washington, D.C., 
was dedicated a year later. In 1967 Dwight D. Eisenhower saw his last 
residence and farm at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, designated a national 
historic site, and his successor, John F. Kennedy, was recognized by a 
national historic site at his Brookline, Massachusetts, birthplace and 
first residence. William Howard Taft National Historic Site, containing 
the Cincinnati birthplace and boyhood home of that President, and 
the Lyndon B. Johnson National Historic Site, ultimately comprising 
Johnson's birthplace, boyhood home, grandfather's ranch, and LBJ 
Ranch in Blanco and Gillespie counties, Texas, were both authorized 
on December 2, 1969. Finally, the property most illustrative of Abra- 
ham Lincoln's pre-presidential career, his residence in Springfield, 
Illinois, became the Lincoln Home National Historic Site in 1972. 



66 



This fifth Lincoln site brought him to a tie with Theodore Roosevelt 
as the most commemorated President in the National Park System. 

Although the period saw a moratorium on new battlefield parks, 
other military history additions continued. Two frontier army posts, 
Fort Bowie, Arizona, and Fort Larned, Kansas, became national his- 
toric sites in 1964. Congress authorized Fort Scott Historic Area, 
Kansas, a year later as a cooperative venture outside the System, with 
the Service assisting local jurisdictions and owners in marking and 
developing the fort and nearby historic properties. In 1978 Fort Scott 
was redesignated a national historic site and came under Service 
administration. George Rogers Clark National Historical Park, 1966, 
in Vincennes, Indiana, centered on an existing memorial commemo- 
rating Clark's victory over the British in 1779, which bolstered Amer- 
ica's claim to the Old Northwest. In 1970 came Fort Point National 
Historic Site, encompassing a major coastal fortification of the mid- 
19th century at San Francisco, and Andersonville National Historic 
Site, containing the notorious Civil War prison camp in Georgia. One 
of the last acquisitions of the period was an unassuming Philadelphia 
boardinghouse that became Thaddeus Kosciuszko National Memo- 
rial in 1972 to honor the Polish military engineer who served in the 
American Revolution and briefly occupied the property later. 

Along with the growth in these and other well-represented themes, 
a few areas treating some previously unrepresented and poorly 
represented subjects also were acquired. The homes of three figures 
important in American literature— John Muir, Carl Sandburg, and 
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow— were recognized as national historic 
sites. The American sculptor Augustus Saint-Gaudens was similarly 
honored. A national memorial was authorized for Roger Williams, 
founder of Rhode Island and a pioneer in religious freedom. The 
System's coverage of industry and transportation was strengthened 
with the addition of Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic 
Site, containing the remains of an inclined plane railroad over the 
mountains in Pennsylvania; Saugus Iron Works National Historic 
Site, a reconstructed 17th century industrial complex in Massachu- 
setts; and the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park, a 
major expansion of the existing national monument to encompass 
significant lands on the north bank of the Potomac River. Another 
facet of economic and social history was addressed by Grant-Kohrs 
Ranch National Historic Site, Montana, containing part of one of the 
largest 19th-century range ranches in the country. Chamizal National 
Memorial in El Paso, Texas, was established to commemorate the 
peaceful settlement of a U.S. -Mexico border dispute. 

Another general enactment of the period, the National Historic 



67 



Preservation Act of October 15, 1966, was of comparable importance 
to the 1906 Antiquities Act and the 1935 Historic Sites Act in 
expanding National Park Service preservation activity. Although 
most of its influence would be felt outside the National Park System, 
it had major implications within. All historical parks were entered in 
the National Register of Historic Places authorized by the act, which 
made Service and other Federal agency actions affecting them 
subject to evaluation and review by state historic preservation 
officers and the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, a new 
Federal agency established by the act. Under a 1971 executive order 
and a later amendment to the act, the Service also was required to 
nominate to the National Register all qualifying historic sites and 
structures in its natural and recreational areas. These resources, most 
of local or regional significance, were then afforded the same 
consideration as the historical parks when faced with potentially 
adverse actions. The effect was to broaden the Service's concern for 
all its cultural properties, including those that had previously received 
little attention. 

Recreational Areas Twenty-seven new areas were assigned to the 
recreational category in the years 1964 through 1972— a remarkable 
average of three per year. Nearly half were national seashores and 
reservoir-related areas in the tradition of those added before, and 
there was one more parkway. The others were new kinds of areas: 
national lakeshores, rivers, performing arts facilities, a trail, and two 
major urban recreation complexes. 

The accelerated increase in recreational areas in the System during 
the period resulted from several factors, including groundwork laid 
by the Service in earlier surveys, establishment of the Land and 
Water Conservation Fund, and greater pressures and support for 
Federal involvement in outdoor recreation during the Kennedy and 
Johnson administrations. In 1963 the recently formed Recreation 
Advisory Council, composed of six cabinet-level officials, had pro- 
posed a system of national recreation areas and set criteria for them. 
They were to be spacious, generally including at least 20,000 acres of 
land and water. They were to be within 250 miles of urban population 
centers and designed to achieve high recreation carrying capacities, 
with outdoor recreation opportunities significant enough to attract 
interstate patronage. Their natural endowments should be "well 
above the ordinary in quality and recreation appeal, being of lesser 
significance than the unique scenic and historic elements of the 
National Park System, but affording a quality of recreation experi- 
ence which transcends that normally associated with areas provided 



68 



by State and local governments." The scale of investment and 
development should be sufficiently high to warrant Federal involve- 
ment. Cooperative management arrangements with the Forest Ser- 
vice, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and possibly other Federal 
bureaus were expected with the Park Service playing a leading role at 
certain areas. 

The recreational area category formally adopted by the Park 
Service in 1964 partially reflected the Recreation Advisory Council's 
criteria, although not all Park System units that the Service assigned 
to the category were of the type envisioned by the Council. Several of 
the national seashores, lakeshores, rivers, and reservoir-based areas 
most nearly complied with the national recreation area criteria; 
others were categorized as recreational areas by default, because 
they did not fully accord with the standards and policies for natural 
or historical areas. 

Five new national seashores joined the four previously authorized 
and the new, but comparable, designation of national lakeshore was 
applied to four additions on the Great Lakes. The Service had sought 
preservation of most of these areas since the mid-1950s, when its 
seashore surveys were largely completed. The System acquired no 
further lakeshores and only one more seashore (Canaveral) in the 
decade after 1972, so this subcategory had evolved to virtually its 
present extent by the end of the period under consideration. 

In most cases establishment of these shoreline reservations fore- 
stalled development of residential subdivisions, highways, and com- 
mercial facilities and preserved threatened natural and historical 
features. The areas provided important outdoor recreation opportu- 
nities in natural environments without the kind of intensive develop- 
ment for mass recreation typified by Jones Beach, New York. 

Fire Island National Seashore, not far east of Jones Beach, protects 
some 25 miles of largely unspoiled barrier beach 50 miles from 
downtown Manhattan. Contrary to the Recreation Advisory Coun- 
cil's position that outdoor recreation should be the dominant man- 
agement purpose in such areas, the seashore's enabling act specified 
that "the Secretary [of the Interior] shall administer and protect the 
Fire Island National Seashore with the primary aim of conserving the 
natural resources located there." 

Assateague Island National Seashore, authorized a year later in 
1965, occupies a 35-mile-long barrier island on the Eastern Shore of 
Maryland and Virginia within reach of the Baltimore and Washington 
metropolitan areas. Political compromises resulted in joint manage- 
ment by the National Park Service, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 
and Maryland Park Service. In exchange for local support of the 



69 



seashore legislation, the Service was legally directed to build a 
highway and major concessions developments along the island, but 
conservationists' opposition led to repeal of these provisions in 1976. 
A new management plan for Assateague emphasizes natural preser- 
vation rather than development for mass recreation. 

Cape Lookout National Seashore, extending southwest from Cape 
Hatteras National Seashore on the Outer Banks of North Carolina, 
was authorized by a 1966 act that repeated the general statement of 
purpose originally legislated for Assateague: The Secretary shall 
administer the . . . Seashore for the general purposes of public 
outdoor recreation, including conservation of natural features con- 
tributing to public enjoyment. " Although conservation was thus 
subordinated to recreation, Cape Lookout, too, has been lightly 
developed for recreational use. 

Gulf Islands National Seashore, authorized in 1971, came closer 
than its predecessors to the Council's vision of a national recreation 
area. The islands in its Mississippi portion, however, accessible only 
by boat, contained natural and historic features whose preservation 
was of paramount importance, and a Spanish-American fort near 
Pensacola, Florida, was a national historic landmark. 

The final national seashore of the period, Cumberland Island, 
Georgia, was least consistent with the recreation area concept. Its 
1972 legislation included stringent development restrictions: with 
certain exceptions, "the seashore shall be permanently preserved in 
its primitive state, and no development of the project or plan for the 
convenience of visitors shall be undertaken which would be incom- 
patible with the preservation of the unique flora and fauna . . . , nor 
shall any road or causeway connecting Cumberland Island to the 
mainland be constructed." It remains among the most "natural" of 
the seashores. 

The four national lakeshores generally followed the seashore 
pattern. Indiana Dunes, on the southern shore of Lake Michigan 
between Gary and Michigan City, Indiana, had been proposed as a 
national park as early as 1917. Although it was the most urban of the 
four, serving the greater Chicago area, its legislation stressed natural 
conservation at least as much as recreation. Sleeping Bear Dunes, 
occupying 34 miles of shoreline on upper Lake Michigan, was to be 
administered "in a manner which provides for recreational opportu- 
nities consistent with the maximum protection of the natural envi- 
ronment within the area." Pictured Rocks, Michigan, the first of the 
national lakeshores, and Apostle Islands, Wisconsin, both on the 
south shore of Lake Superior, also protected resources of great 
natural and scenic value. Had the laws authorizing most of the 



70 



seashores and lakeshores not permitted hunting, an aetivity prohib- 
ited in the national parks and monuments, many would have readily 
fitted the Service's natural area category. 

During these years the Service became involved at eight existing or 
proposed reservoirs. Four of these national recreation areas— Bighorn 
Canyon, Delaware Water Gap, Lake Chelan, and Ross Lake — were 
authorized by special acts of Congress; Service responsibilities at the 
others were set by cooperative agreements with other agencies. Most 
resembled their predecessors, but Delaware Water Gap, Lake Chelan, 
and Ross Lake deserve special mention. 

Ross Lake and Lake Chelan, Washington, were authorized together 
in 1968 with the adjacent North Cascades National Park. They were 
planned as areas in which to concentrate physical development, 
especially visitor accommodations, outside the national park — the 
first time a provision of this type was made at the outset in 
conjunction with park legislation. The Ross Lake area lies between 
the north and south units of the national park, which is adjoined by 
Lake Chelan on the southeast. The park and the two national 
recreation areas collectively embrace more than 684,240 acres of 
magnificent mountain country in the Cascade Range. 

Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area in Pennsylvania 
and New Jersey was authorized in 1965 to encompass the proposed 
Tocks Island Reservoir, a 37-mile-long Corps of Engineers impound- 
ment, and scenic lands in the adjoining Delaware Valley totaling 
71,000 acres. The System's first national recreation area east of the 
Mississippi, it was envisioned to serve 10 million visitors annually 
from the New York and Philadelphia metropolitan areas. But the 
Tocks Island Dam came under heavy attack from conservationists 
and others, especially after the National Environmental Policy Act of 
1969 forced greater consideration of the environmental effects of 
such projects. Without repealing the authorization for the dam, 
Congress in 1978 ordered the lands acquired by the Corps to be 
transferred to the Service and made the Delaware River within the 
recreation area a national scenic river— a designation incompatible 
with its damming. There is little likelihood that the area will become 
what was originally planned, at least during this century. 

The first of the national rivers and scenic riverways was Ozark 
National Scenic Riverways in southeastern Missouri, authorized by 
Congress in 1964 "for the purpose of conserving and interpreting 
unique scenic and other natural values and objects of historic 
interest, including preservation of portions of the Current River and 
the Jacks Fork River in Missouri as free-flowing streams, preservation 
of springs and caves, management of wildlife, and provisions for use 



71 



and enjoyment of the outdoor recreation resources thereof by the 
people of the United States." This linear area incorporated some 140 
miles of river and three state parks in its nearly 80,000 acres. 

The Ozark authorization was a forerunner of the comprehensive 
Wild and Scenic Rivers Act of October 2, 1968, which instituted a 
national wild and scenic rivers system based on conservationist 
philosophy: "It is hereby declared to be the policy of the United 
States that certain selected rivers of the Nation, which, with their 
immediate environments, possess outstandingly remarkable scenic, 
recreational, geologic, fish and wildlife, historic, cultural, or other 
similar values, shall be preserved in free-flowing condition, and that 
they and their immediate environments shall be protected for the 
benefit and enjoyment of present and future generations. The 
Congress declares that the established national policy of dams and 
other construction at appropriate sections of the rivers of the United 
States needs to be complemented by a policy that would preserve 
other selected rivers or sections thereof in their free-flowing condi- 
tion to protect the water quality of such rivers and to fullfill other 
vital national conservation purposes." 

The act identified eight rivers and adjacent lands in nine states as 
initial components of the national wild and scenic rivers system, to be 
administered variously by the secretaries of Agriculture and Interior. 
Twenty-seven others were named to be studied for potential addition 
to the system. It was anticipated that some of those found eligible 
would be managed by states and localities. Of the eight initial 
components only one, St. Croix National Scenic Riverway in Minne- 
sota and Wisconsin, became a unit of the National Park System. Ideal 
for canoeing, it contains some 200 miles of the St. Croix River and its 
Namekagon tributary noted for wildness, clear flowing water, and 
abundant wildlife. All or portions of three of the study areas later 
joined the Park System: the Lower St. Croix National Scenic Riverway 
was authorized in 1972, and the Rio Grande Wild and Scenic River 
and the Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River followed 
together in 1978. 

On March 1, 1972, the Yellowstone centennial date, Congress 
authorized a related addition not proposed in the Wild and Scenic 
Rivers Act — Buffalo National River, Arkansas. Its 94,146 acres 
encompass 132 miles of the clear, free-flowing Buffalo, multicolored 
bluffs, and numerous springs. 

On the same day that President Johnson approved the Wild and 
Scenic Rivers Act, North Cascades and Redwood national parks, and 
Lake Chelan and Ross Lake national recreation areas, he also signed 
the National Trails System Act. The act's initial policy statement 

72 



defined its purpose: "In order to provide for the ever-increasing out- 
door recreation needs of an expanding population and in order to 
promote public access to, travel within, and enjoyment and appreci- 
ation of the open-air, outdoor areas of the Nation, trails should be 
established (i) primarily, near the urban areas of the Nation, and (ii) 
secondarily, within established scenic areas more remotely located. 

"The purpose of this act is to provide the means for attaining 
these objectives by instituting a national system of recreation and 
scenic trails." 

National recreation trails, accessible to urban areas, would be 
designated by the Secretary of the Interior or the Secretary of 
Agriculture according to specified criteria and guidelines; national 
scenic trails, generally longer and more remote, would be established 
only by Congress. The act designated two national scenic trails as 
initial components of the system: the Appalachian Trail, extending 
from Mount Katahdin, Maine, to Springer Mountain, Georgia; and 
the Pacific Crest Trail, running from Mexico to Canada along the 
Cascades, Sierras, and other ranges. 

The Pacific Crest Trail was to be administered by the Secretary of 
Agriculture and the Appalachian Trail by the Secretary of the 
Interior. The Appalachian Trail was thus brought into the National 
Park System. Already well established, it had been conceived in 1921 
by Benton MacKaye, forester and philosopher, who saw it as the 
backbone of a primeval environment. Initially four older New 
England trail systems, including Vermont's Long Trail begun in 1910, 
were linked to begin the Appalachian Trail. Additions were made 
farther south, including long sections through national forests in 
Virginia and North Carolina. The 2,000-mile trail was essentially 
completed in 1937 when the last short stretch was opened on Maine's 
Mount Sugarloaf. 

An advisory council appointed by the Secretary of the Interior 
includes representatives of the Appalachian Trail Conference, the 14 
States through which the trail passes, other private organizations, and 
involved Federal agencies. The National Park Service is responsible 
for protection, development, and maintenance of the trail within 
Federally administered areas but encourages the states to care for 
portions outside Federal jurisdiction. 

The National Trails System Act ordered 14 other routes to be 
studied for possible national scenic trail designation. Two were later 
designated, and four more became national historic trails upon enact- 
ment of legislation in 1978. But the Appalachian Trail is the only such 
entity under Service administration. 

The fourth and most recent parkway currently classed as a unit of 

73 



the System is the John D. Rockefeller, Jr., Memorial Parkway, 
Wyoming. Authorized August 25, 1972, the 82-mile scenic corridor, 
which uses existing roads, links West Thumb in Yellowstone and the 
south entrance of Grand Teton National Park. It commemorates 
Rockefeller's significant financial support for many parks, including 
Grand Teton. 

Through the civic-mindedness of Catherine Filene Shouse another 
new type of area was added to the System. She donated part of her 
Wolf Trap Farm in Fairfax County, Virginia, to the United States so 
that it might be developed and maintained as a performing arts center 
in the National Capital area. The Filene Center, an open-sided 
auditorium, was completed for the first summer season of perform- 
ances in 1971. Programs then and since have gained a faithful fol- 
lowing in the Washington area. The Filene Center was destroyed by 
fire in 1982 but has been rebuilt. Performances are arranged by the 
private Wolf Trap Foundation. 

The other area intended primarily as a performing arts facility is 
the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts in Washington, 
D.C. The massive structure with its concert hall, opera house, Eisen- 
hower Theater, two smaller theaters, and restaurants was designed by 
Edward Durrell Stone and opened in 1972. On June 16 of that year a 
congressional enactment assigned to the National Park Service 
"maintenance, security, information, interpretation, janitorial and all 
other services necessary to the nonperforming arts functions" of the 
center, which serves as the national memorial to President Kennedy. 

Two other units of the System where the performing arts play 
major roles, Chamizal National Memorial and Ford's Theatre National 
Historic Site, have historical commemoration and interpretation as 
their primary purposes and were each classed as historical areas. 

On October 27, 1972, President Nixon signed legislation estab- 
lishing two areas of great consequence for the System: Gateway 
National Recreation Area in New York City and nearby New Jersey 
and Golden Gate National Recreation Area in Marin and San 
Francisco counties, California. Each contains seacoast beaches, but 
their proximity to metropolitan New York and San Francisco and the 
inclusion of other elements make them far more urban in character 
and patronage than the national seashores previously established. 

Gateway encompasses four major units. In Jamaica Bay, the 
primary aim is conservation of bird life and other natural resources. 
Elsewhere, at Breezy Point, Staten Island, and Sandy Hook, recrea- 
tional beach use predominates, although the legislation made special 
provision for preserving, interpreting, and using the historic sites and 
structures on Sandy Hook and Staten Island. Sandy Hook's Fort 

74 



Hancock and the Sandy Hook Proving Grounds were designated a 
national historic landmark in 1982. As at most of the other rec- 
reational areas, hunting is permitted in designated sections. Gateway 
covers more than 26,000 acres. 

Golden Gate was established "to preserve for public use and 
enjoyment certain areas . . . possessing outstanding natural, historic, 
scenic, and recreational values, and in order to provide for the 
maintenance of needed recreational open space necessary to urban 
environment and planning/' The park was authorized to contain 
72,815 acres by 1984. Much was taken from Army installations no 
longer needed for military purposes. Besides its ocean beaches, 
Golden Gate includes a redwood forest, marshes, historic ships of 
the National Maritime Museum, historic coastal defense works, and 
Alcatraz Island with the remains of its infamous penitentiary. 

Before Gateway and Golden Gate, virtually all the Service's hold- 
ings in major urban areas— outside the Washington, D.C., vicinity- 
had been small historic sites, where the primary concerns were 
historic preservation and interpretation. These two acquisitions 
placed the Service squarely in the business of urban mass recreation. 
This departure was controversial, and attendant major burdens of 
funding, staffing, and management refocus would not be met without 
stress in the decade ahead. 



75 



National Park System Additions 1964-1972 



1964 

Aug. 27 Ozark NSR, Mississippi 
Aug. 30 Fort Bowie NHS, Arizona 
Aug. 31 Allegheny Portage Railroad NHS, Pennsylvania 
Aug. 31 Fort Larned NHS, Kansas 
Aug. 31 John Muir NHS, California 
Aug. 31 Johnstown Flood NMem, Pennsylvania 
Aug. 31 Saint-Gaudens NHS, New Hampshire 
Sept. 1 1 Fire Island NS, New York 
Sept. 12 Canyonlands NP, Utah 

Dec. 31 Bighorn Canyon NRA, Wyoming and Montana 
1965 

Feb. 1 Arbuckle NRA, Oklahoma (incorporated in Chickasaw NRA 
1976) 

Feb. 11 Curecanti NRA, Colorado 

March 15 Sanford NRA, Texas (redesignated Lake Meredith Recrea- 
tion Area 1972) 
May 15 Nez Perce NHP, Idaho 
June 5 Agate Fossil Beds NM, Nebraska 
June 28 Pecos NM, New Mexico 
Aug. 12 Herbert Hoover NHS, Iowa 
Aug. 28 Hubbell Trading Post NHS, Arizona 

Aug. 31 Alibates Flint Quarries and Texas Panhandle Pueblo Culture 
NM, Texas (redesignated Alibates Flint Quarries NM 1978) 
Aug. 31 Fort Scott Historic Area, Kansas (redesignated Fort Scott 
NHS and acquisition authorized 1978) 

Sept. 1 Delaware Water Gap NRA, Pennsylvania and New Jersey 
Sept. 21 Assateague Island NS, Maryland and Virginia 
Oct. 22 Roger Williams NMem, Rhode Island 
Nov. 1 1 Amistad NRA, Texas 
1966 

March 10 Cape Lookout NS, North Carolina 

June 20 Fort Union Trading Post NHS, North Dakota and Montana 
June 30 Chamizal NMem, Texas 
July 23 George Rogers Clark NHP, Indiana 
Sept. 9 San Juan Island NHP, Washington 
Oct. 15 Guadalupe Mountains NP, Texas 
Oct. 15 Pictured Rocks NL, Michigan 
Oct. 15 Wolf Trap Farm Park for the Performing Arts, Virginia 

76 



Nov. 2 Theodore Roosevelt Inaugural NHS, New York 
Nov. 5 Indiana Dunes NL, Indiana 
1967 

May 26 John Fitzgerald Kennedy NHS, Massachusetts 
Nov. 27 Eisenhower NHS, Pennsylvania 
1968 

March 12 National Visitor Center, District of Columbia (abolished 
1981) 

April 5 Saugus Iron Works NHS, Massachusetts 
Oct. 2 Appalachian NST, Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massa- 
chusetts, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Mary- 
land, West Virginia, Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Georgia 
Oct. 2 Lake Chelan NRA, Washington 
Oct. 2 North Cascades NP, Washington 
Oct. 2 Redwood NP, California 
Oct. 2 Ross Lake NRA, Washington 

Oct. 2 Saint Croix NSR, Minnesota and Wisconsin (assigned to NPS 
1969) 

Oct. 17 Carl Sandburg Home NHS, North Carolina 
Oct. 18 Biscayne NM, Florida (incorporated in Biscayne NP 1980) 
1969 

Jan. 16 Mar-A-Lago NHS, Florida (abolished 1980) 
Jan. 20 Marble Canyon NM, Arizona (incorporated in Grand Canyon 
NP 1975) 

Aug. 20 Florissant Fossil Beds NM, Colorado 
Dec. 2 Lyndon B. Johnson NHS, Texas (redesignated a NHP 1980) 
Dec. 2 William Howard Taft NHS, Ohio 
1970 

Sept. 26 Apostle Islands NL, Wisconsin 
Oct. 10 Fort Point NHS, California 
Oct. 16 Andersonville NHS, Georgia 
Oct. 21 Sleeping Bear Dunes NL, Michigan 
1971 

Jan. 8 Chesapeake and Ohio Canal NHP, District of Columbia, 
Maryland, and West Virginia (incorporated Chesapeake and Ohio 
Canal NM) 

Jan. 8 Gulf Islands NS, Florida and Mississippi 
Jan. 8 Voyageurs NP, Minnesota 
Aug. 18 Lincoln Home NHS, Illinois 



77 



1972 

March 1 Buffalo NR, Arkansas 

June 16 John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts, District of 

Columbia (date of NPS acquisition) 

Aug. 17 Puukohola Heiau NHS, Hawaii 

Aug. 25 Grant-Kohrs Ranch NHS, Montana 

Aug. 25 John D. Rockefeller, Jr., Memorial Parkway, Wyoming 

Oct. 9 Longfellow NHS, Massachusetts 

Oct. 21 Hohokam-Pima NM, Arizona 

Oct. 21 Thaddeus Kosciuszko NMem, Pennsylvania 

Oct. 23 Cumberland Island NS, Georgia 

Oct. 23 Fossil Butte NM, Wyoming 

Oct. 25 Lower Saint Croix NSR, Minnesota and Wisconsin 

Oct. 27 Gateway NRA, New York and New Jersey 

Oct. 27 Golden Gate NRA, California 



78 







& 



Rounding Out the System, 
1973 to 1984 



In the final years of this account, the increase in the number of 
National Park System areas kept pace with the explosive growth of 
the preceding period. Seventy-three essentially new areas were added 
between the beginning of 1973 and 1984— four more than during the 
nine Hartzog years. Numbers of units alone do not tell the full story, 
for as a result of huge additions in Alaska in 1978-1980 the System's 
total land area more than doubled. Paralleling this growth, however, 
was an increasing sense that the System was expanding too fast for its 
own good, and new park acquisitions virtually ceased after 1980. 

Director Hartzog was succeeded in January 1973 by Ronald H. 
Walker, a former staff assistant to President Nixon. Walker ap- 
pointed a career service employee, Russell E. Dickenson, as his 
deputy. Walker and Dickenson chose to place consolidation of past 
gains above further expansion at the previous rate, believing that 
Service funding and staffing would be insufficient to sustain such a 
continued influx. In a departure from recent stands, the Service and 
Interior Department, backed by the Secretary's prestigious Advisory 
Board on National Parks, opposed proposals for two more big urban 
recreation areas— Cuyahoga Valley outside Cleveland, Ohio, and 
Santa Monica Mountains near Los Angeles. Gateway and Golden 
Gate had been intended as models for state and local recreation areas 
elsewhere, they contended, not as prototypes for future units of the 
National Park System serving essentially local populations. 

The new slow-growth posture had little effect at first. Congress 
authorized 14 new parks during Walker's two years as director. 
Nearly half were small historic sites assembled in an omnibus bill. But 
they also included the first two national preserves, the controversial 
Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation Area, and a major historical 
park in Boston — a mosaic of properties owned by private individuals 
and local and Federal governments. 

Walker was followed by Gary Everhardt, a career employee. In 
1975, the first year of the Everhardt administration, the bureau 
tightened its written criteria for proposed national parklands. To be 
favorably recommended before, an area had to be nationally signifi- 
cant and lend itself to administration, preservation, and public use. 
Now the Service also would consider whether the area was assured of 



80 



adequate protection outside the System and whether it would be 
available for public appreciation and use under such protection. "If 
these two criteria will be met by other means," the new policy stated, 
"the Service would not ordinarily recommend the addition of the 
area to the System." 

A majority in Congress, however, were still favorably disposed 
toward expansion. Section 8 of the General Authorities Act of 
October 7, 1976, ordered explicit steps to be taken to this end: "The 
Secretary of the Interior is directed to investigate, study, and 
continually monitor the welfare of areas whose resources exhibit 
qualities of national significance and which may have potential for 
inclusion in the National Park System. At the beginning of each fiscal 
year, the Secretary shall transmit to the Speaker of the House of 
Representatives and to the President of the Senate, comprehensive 
reports on each of those areas upon which studies have been 
completed. On this same date, and accompanying such reports, the 
Secretary shall transmit a listing, in generally descending order of 
importance or merit, of not less than twelve such areas which appear 
to be of national significance and which may have potential for 
inclusion in the National Park System. " A 1980 amendment to 
Section 8 also required submission of an updated National Park 
System Plan "from which candidate areas can be identified and 
selected to constitute units of the National Park System. " 

William J. Whalen, who had been superintendent of Golden Gate 
National Recreation Area, became director in mid-1977 with the 
recommendation of Rep. Phillip Burton of California, chairman of 
the parks subcommittee in the House of Representatives and a 
powerful advocate of expansion. Whalen was sympathetic to urban 
areas and the many new park proposals advanced by Burton and his 
colleagues. Another omnibus bill approved November 10, 1978 — 
characterized by critics as "park barrel" legislation — authorized 12 
additions to the System. Among them was Santa Monica Mountains 
National Recreation Area, enacted despite another opposing resolu- 
tion by the Secretary's Advisory Board. 

Russell E. Dickenson succeeded Whalen as director in May 1980 
and brought with him his predilection for taking care of existing hold- 



81 



ings rather than growth. Acquisition indeed slowed during his tenure. 
Outside Alaska, six entirely new parks— all of them small historic 
sites— were authorized or established during the remainder of the 
Carter administration. When President Ronald Reagan's first Secre- 
tary of the Interior, James G. Watt, took office in 1981, Dickenson 
found him in full agreement that the Service should improve its stew- 
ardship of what it had before seeking to absorb more. Consistent with 
their position, the 97th Congress (1981-1982) eliminated appropria- 
tions for the new area studies dictated by Section 8, acquiesced in 
Dickenson's decision to shelve the expansionist National Park System 
Plan, and did not authorize a single new park. Instead, it and the next 
Congress supported the Service's Park Restoration and Improvement 
Program, which would devote more than a billion dollars over the 
coming five years to stabilize and upgrade existing park resources 
and facilities. 

A policy change predating Dickenson's appointment affected the 
organizational structure of the System. By the mid-1970s the natural, 
historical, and recreational management categories to which System 
areas had been assigned since 1964 were proving cumbersome. The 
recreational category was the chief source of difficulty. Although 
some areas were clearly recreational in character and use, the cate- 
gory became a catchall for others that might have been classed with 
the traditional natural areas but for the fact that hunting or certain 
other activities were permitted. The labeling of such areas as recrea- 
tional implied that natural conservation within them would be sec- 
ondary to development for heavy public use— development and use 
that might be ecologically harmful. Conservationists among the public 
and in Congress were disturbed about this implication for such out- 
standing areas as Cape Cod and Pictured Rocks. 

The Service responded first in 1975 by replacing its separate 
natural, historical, and recreational area policy manuals with a single 
management policy compilation that addressed the range of charac- 
teristics that each park possessed. A mostly natural area, for exam- 
ple, might also have important cultural features and portions suitable 
for recreational development. It would be zoned accordingly in its 
general management plan, and the different zones would be managed 
by policies applicable to each. 

With this significant advance in planning and management sophis- 
tication, the assignment of each park to a single category was no 
longer appropriate, and in 1977 the area categories were officially 
abolished. For convenience, of course, the Service still refers infor- 
mally to most areas as natural, historical, or recreational based on 
their predominant characteristics. 



82 



Natural Areas Twenty-six natural areas now in the System were 
added (in whole or large part) between 1973 and 1980. This was two 
more than the number of new natural additions from the years 1933 
(post-reorganization) through 1972. Twenty of the 26 were in Alaska, 
and 2 others— Channel Islands National Park, California, and Biscayne 
National Park, Florida— were based on existing national monuments. 
Two more preexisting units, Badlands and Theodore Roosevelt in the 
Dakotas, achieved national park status. Only four natural parks out- 
side Alaska were entirely new. 

The first two of these, authorized by consecutive enactments on 
October 11, 1974, formed a new subcategory as well. Big Cypress, 
Florida, and Big Thicket, Texas, were made national preserves. 
According to Service publicity on the subject, national preserves are 
"primarily for the protection of certain resources. Activities such as 
hunting and fishing or the extraction of minerals and fuels may be 
permitted if they do not jeopardize the natural values/ 1 Although 
such uses had rendered other areas ineligible for the natural category 
and had caused them to be classed as recreational, Big Cypress and 
Big Thicket were even less suited for the latter category. The two 
preserves pointed up the cumbersome nature oi the management cat- 
egories and were yet another reason for their abolition in 1977. 

Big Cypress National Preserve, encompassing 570,000 acres adjoin- 
ing Everglades National Park on the northwest, was established 
primarily to protect the freshwater supply essential to the Everglades 
ecosystem. Containing abundant tropical plant and animal life, it 
continues to serve the Miccosukee and Seminole Indian tribes for 
subsistence hunting, fishing, and trapping and traditional tribal 
ceremonials. Big Thicket National Preserve includes a significant 
portion of the Big Thicket area of East Texas. Its 12 detached units, 
totaling 84,550 acres in 7 counties, protect a dense growth of diverse 
plant species of great botanical interest. Establishment of the pre- 
serve followed an off and on battle since the 1930s between conserva- 
tion groups and timber interests. 

John Day Fossil Beds National Monument, Oregon, was authorized 
in the omnibus bill approved October 26, 1974. In common with the 
Agate Fossil Beds, Florissant Fossil Beds, and Fossil Butte national 
monuments established in the preceding period, it protected impor- 
tant deposits of plant and animal fossils within its 14,100 acres. The 
last of the entirely new natural areas outside Alaska was Congaree 
Swamp National Monument, South Carolina, authorized two years 
later. On an alluvial floodplain southeast of Columbia, the 15,200-acre 
monument contains the last significant tract of virgin bottomland 
hardwoods in the Southeast. 



83 





., < im t , m, m m ■ «. «. .•«-. 



■ * 



aJPway National Recreation Area 



■ 



Historical Areas In these years half of the new areas dealt 
primarily with American history or prehistory. A third of these were 
military and presidential sites; the remainder addressed themes less 
well represented in the System. 

The presidential sites included a landscaped memorial to Lyndon 
B. Johnson in Washington, D.C., and the homes of Martin Van Buren, 
James A. Garfield, and Harry S Truman. In December 1982 after Bess 
Truman's death, Secretary James Watt designated the Harry S 
Truman National Historic Site in Independence, Missouri, under the 
Historic Sites Act. Legislation was passed early in the next Congress 
to authorize funds for its administration by the Service. 

Among the eight military history additions was Boston National 
Historical Park, which included Bunker Hill and its famous monu- 
ment, Dorchester Heights, Faneuil Hall, Old North Church, Old 
South Meeting House, and the Boston Naval Shipyard — berth for 
USS Constitution. Springfield Armory National Historic Site, where 
U.S. military small arms were manufactured from 1794 to 1968, was 
significant in industrial as well as military history. Valley Forge, long 
a Pennsylvania state park, became a national historical park on the 
bicentennial date of July 4, 1976. The Mexican War and World War 
II, not previously represented by combat sites, achieved such repre- 
sentation with Palo Alto Battlefield National Historic Site, Texas, for 
the former and War in the Pacific National Historical Park, Guam, 
and the USS Arizona Memorial, Hawaii, for the latter. 

The barely tapped subjects of literature, drama, and the arts made 
further progress in the System with the addition of national historic 
sites for playwright Eugene O'Neill in California, author and critic 
Edgar Allan Poe in Pennsylvania, and landscape architect and author 
Frederick Law Olmsted in Massachusetts. 

Parks treating social and humanitarian movements also increased 
their number. Four new sites in this category focused on women: 
Clara Barton National Historic Site, Maryland, home of the founder 
of the American Red Cross; Sewall-Belmont House National Historic 
Site in Washington, D.C., commemorating the women's suffrage 
leader Alice Paul; Eleanor Roosevelt National Historic Site, Mrs. 
Roosevelt's retreat at Hyde Park, New York; and Women's Rights 
National Historical Park, including the home of Elizabeth Cady 
Stanton and other sites related to the early women's movement in 
Seneca Falls, New York. 

There was only one addition, other than Springfield Armory, 
focusing on industrial history, but it was an important one. Lowell 
National Historical Park, Massachusetts, incorporated 19th century 
factory buildings, a power canal system, and other significant ele- 



85 



ments of America's first planned industrial community. Like Boston 
National Historical Park, it is a blend of public and private ownership. 

Black history achieved further representation with three new 
areas. Tuskegee Institute National Historic Site includes historic 
portions of the pioneering industrial education school established by 
Booker T. Washington in Alabama in 1881. Maggie L. Walker 
National Historic Site in Richmond, Virginia, commemorates a black 
woman who became the first woman president of an American 
financial institution. Martin Luther King, Jr., National Historic Site in 
Atlanta contains the birthplace, church, and grave of the prominent 
civil rights leader. Two more black history sites were established by 
Congress as "affiliated areas" outside the System: Boston African 
American National Historic Site (1980), with 16 related pre-Civil War 
structures, and Mary McLeod Bethune Council House National 
Historic Site (1982) at the Washington, D.C., home of the noted 
educator and political adviser. 

Most of the cultural properties assigned to the National Park 
Service upon its creation in 1916 dealt with aboriginal peoples, and 
such properties continued as a major component of the System 
throughout its evolution. The two entirely new prehistoric additions 
during this period (outside Alaska) were Knife River Indian Villages 
National Historic Site, North Dakota, containing important Hidatsa 
village remnants; and Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park, 
with three large fishponds, house sites, and other archeological 
evidences of Hawaiian native culture. Two of the earliest prehistoric 
national monuments were significantly enlarged. Chaco Culture 
National Historical Park, New Mexico, superseded Chaco Canyon 
National Monument and added 33 outlying "Chaco Culture Archeo- 
logical Protection Sites." Congress authorized special protective 
measures for the outlying sites that were threatened by extensive 
mineral exploration and development. Salinas National Monument, 
also in New Mexico, incorporated the old Gran Quivira National 
Monument and two state monuments containing Pueblo Indian and 
Spanish mission ruins. 

Recreational Areas Eleven new areas that would formerly have 
been classed as recreational were brought into the System during 
these years. One was a national seashore, one was a reservoir-based 
national recreational area, three were urban national recreation 
areas, and the remainder were national rivers of various designations. 
Canaveral National Seashore, Florida, is the most recently estab- 
lished national seashore. It occupies 25 miles of undeveloped barrier 
island supporting many species of birds and other wildlife. The lands 

86 



and waters administered by the Service adjoin the Kennedy Space 
Center and Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. Canaveral's 
legislation emphasized natural preservation in its statement of pur- 
pose and prohibited new construction and development beyond that 
necessary for public safety and proper administration. 

Chickasaw National Recreation Area, the reservoir-based addition, 
incorporated Arbuckle National Recreation Area and Piatt National 
Park in Oklahoma. Although Piatt had been one of the early national 
parks, it occupied only 912 acres and had never measured up to its 
prestigious designation. 

Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation Area, between Cleveland 
and Akron, Ohio, was established to preserve "the historic, scenic, 
natural, and recreational values of the Cuyahoga River and the 
adjacent lands of the Cuyahoga Valley and for the purpose of 
providing for the maintenance of needed recreational open space 
necessary to the urban environment." Its 32,460 acres included a 
portion of the Ohio and Erie Canal that had previously been desig- 
nated a national historic landmark. Chattahoochee River National 
Recreation Area in and northeast of Atlanta, Georgia, though 
considerably smaller, was established to serve similar purposes for its 
metropolitan area. The third such addition was Santa Monica 
Mountains National Recreation Area, authorized to cover 150,000 
acres of rugged chaparral-covered landscape fronting on the sandy 
beaches above Los Angeles. Its legislation prescribed management 
"in a manner which will preserve and enhance its scenic, natural, and 
historical setting and its public health value as an airshed for the 
Southern California metropolitan area while providing for the recrea- 
tional and educational needs of the visiting public. " 

The first national river of the period brought into the System was 
Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area, centered on the 
Big South Fork of the Cumberland River and its tributaries in 
Tennessee and Kentucky. The area's scenic gorges and valleys 
encompass numerous natural and historic features. Next came Obed 
Wild and Scenic River in East Tennessee, where the Obed River and 
its principal tributaries cut through the Cumberland Plateau. The last 
four river additions (outside Alaska), all authorized by the omnibus 
National Parks and Recreation Act of 1978, were the Delaware 
National Scenic River in Pennsylvania and New Jersey, containing 
the Delaware within Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area; 
the Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River, containing most 
of the Delaware between Pennsylvania and New York; New River 
Gorge National River, West Virginia, encompassing a rugged section 
of one of the oldest rivers on the continent; and Rio Grande Wild and 



87 



Scenic River, covering 191 miles of the American bank of the Rio 
Grande downstream from Big Bend National Park, Texas. 

New Alaska Parklands One of the great conservation campaigns 
of the century produced a fitting climax to this account of the 
System's evolution: the new national parklands in Alaska. The 
addition of these enormous acreages to the Park System was one of 
the far-reaching results of Alaska's admission to the Union in 1959. 

The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act of December 18, 1971, 
contained a provision of tremendous consequence for the national 
conservation systems. Section 17(d)(2) of the act directed the Secre- 
tary of the Interior "to withdraw from all forms of appropriation 
under the public land laws . . . and from selection under the Alaska 
Statehood Act, and from selection by Regional Corporations ... up 
to, but not to exceed, eighty million acres of unreserved public lands 
in the State of Alaska . . . which the Secretary deems are suitable for 
addition to or creation as units of the National Park, Forest, Wildlife 
Refuge, and Wild and Scenic Rivers Systems. . . ." He had two years 
to make specific recommendations for additions to the four systems 
from the withdrawn lands, and the recommended lands would remain 
withdrawn until Congress acted — for up to five more years. 

On the second anniversary deadline, Secretary Rogers C. B. 
Morton transmitted his recommendations, which included 32.3 mil- 
lion acres for parklands at a time when the entire System then 
encompassed some 31 million acres. The recommendations were 
controversial, especially in Alaska, where there was strong opposi- 
tion to so much land being removed from potential economic 
exploitation and other uses incompatible with park status. Bills 
introduced by both supporters and opponents made little headway 
until the 95th Congress in 1977-1978, the last two years for legislative 
action before the withdrawals expired. A strong conservation bill in 
that Congress introduced by Rep. Morris K. Udall of Arizona, which 
went beyond the Morton recommendations in significant respects, 
incorporated the national preserve concept to allow for sport hunting 
in areas bearing that designation rather than in certain national 
parks, as Morton had proposed. 

A modified version of Udall's H.R. 39 passed the House of Repre- 
sentatives on May 18, 1978, but Senators Mike Gravel and Ted 
Stevens of Alaska blocked action on a comparable measure in the 
Senate, and the 95th Congress adjourned in October without an Alaska 
lands act. The land withdrawals were due to expire on December 18. 
Faced with this prospect, President Jimmy Carter on December 1 
took the extraordinary step of proclaiming 15 new national monu- 



88 



ments and two major monument additions on the withdrawn lands. 
Of the new monuments, 2 were under Forest Service jurisdiction and 
2 under the Fish and Wildlife Service; the other 11 were additions to 
the National Park System. (The Fish and Wildlife monuments, 
Becharof and Yukon Flats, were later incorporated in national 
wildlife refuges; the Forest Service monuments, Misty Fjords and 
Admiralty Island, retain their identities under that bureau.) 

The national monuments, proclaimed under authority of the 1906 
Antiquities Act, were stopgaps; Congress could hardly be expected 
to provide funds for administering areas it had declined to approve. 
The purpose was to withhold the areas from other disposition at least 
until the next Congress could reconsider protective legislation. 

Bills were reintroduced in the 96th Congress and a revised H.R. 39 
sponsored by Reps. Udall and John Anderson of Illinois passed the 
House on May 16, 1979. Alaska's senators, allied with a range of com- 
mercial interests and sportsmen's groups, again fought to limit addi- 
tions to the restrictive national park and wildlife refuge systems. A 
somewhat weaker conservation bill finally cleared the Senate on 
August 19, 1980. After Ronald Reagan's defeat of President Carter in 
November, supporters of the House bill decided to accept the Senate 
bill rather than risk an impasse before congressional adjournment and 
a less acceptable bill in years to come. The House approved the Senate 
measure on November 12, and on December 2 Carter signed into the 
law the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA). 

ANILCA contributed to the National Park System the remarkable 
total of 47,080,730 acres, exceeding the nearly 45 million acres 
assigned it by the provisional national monument proclamations and 
surpassing by nearly 50 percent the 32.3 million acres proposed seven 
years before. The act converted most of the national monuments to 
national parks and preserves, the latter permitting sport hunting and 
trapping. Before December 1978 Alaska had contained one national 
park, two national monuments, and two national historical parks. 
After December 1980 its parklands included eight national parks, two 
national monuments, ten national preserves, two national historical 
parks, and one wild river. 

Mount McKinley National Park was renamed Denali National Park 
after the Indian name for the mountain and was joined by a Denali 
National Preserve. Together the park and preserve contain 4,000,000 
acres more than the older national park. The old Glacier Bay and 
Katmai national monuments became national parks, with adjoining 
national preserves. The Glacier Bay park and preserve gained some 
470,000 acres over the old monument, while the two Katmai areas 
exceed the old Katmai monument by nearly 1 ,300,000 acres. 



Wrangell-St. Elias National Park contains 8,331,406 acres. Adja- 
cent Wrangell-St. Elias National Preserve contains some 4,873,000 
acres. Together they comprise an area larger than the combined area 
of Vermont and New Hampshire and contain the continent's greatest 
array of glaciers and peaks above 16,000 feet— among them Mount 
St. Elias, rising second only to Mount McKinley in the United States. 
With Canada's adjacent Kluane National Park this is one of the 
greatest areas of parklands in the world. 

Gates of the Arctic National Park, whose 7,498,000 acres lie 
entirely north of the Arctic Circle, and the 943,000-acre national 
preserve of the same name include part of the Central Brooks Range, 
the northernmost extension of the Rockies. Gentle valleys, wild 
rivers, and numerous lakes complement the jagged mountain peaks. 

Adjoining Gates of the Arctic on the west is Noatak National 
Preserve. Its 6,557,000 acres are drained by the Noatak River, which 
runs through the 65-mile-long Grand Canyon of the Noatak, and 
contain a striking array of plant and animal life and hundreds of 
prehistoric archeological sites in what is the largest untouched river 
basin in the United States. 

Bering Land Bridge National Preserve with 2,774,000 acres on the 
Seward Peninsula covers a remnant of the land bridge that connected 
North America and Asia more than 13,000 years ago. Modern Eskimos 
manage their reindeer herds in and around the preserve, which 
features rich paleontological and archeological resources, large 
migratory bird populations, ash explosion craters, and lava flows. 

The 2,634 ,000-acre Lake Clark National Park and the 1,405,500-acre 
Lake Clark National Preserve are set in the heart of the Chigmit 
Mountains on the western shore of Cook Inlet, southwest of Anchor- 
age. The 50-mile-long Lake Clark, largest of more than 20 glacial 
lakes, is fed by hundreds of waterfalls tumbling from the surrounding 
mountains and is headwaters for an important red salmon spawning 
ground. Jagged peaks and granite spires have caused the region to be 
called the Alaskan Alps. 

Yukon-Charley Rivers National Preserve protects 115 miles of the 
Yukon and the entire 88-mile Charley River basin within its 2,517,000 
acres. Abandoned cabins and other cultural remnants recall the 
Yukon's role during the 1898 Alaska gold rush. The Charley, running 
swift and clear, is renowned for Whitewater recreation. Grizzly bears, 
Dall sheep, and moose are among the abundant wildlife. 

Kobuk Valley National Park, another Arctic area of 1,749,000 
acres, adjoins the south border of Noatak National Preserve. Its 
diverse terrain includes the northernmost extent of the boreal forest 
and the 25-square-mile Great Kobuk Sand Dunes, the largest active 



90 



dune field in Arctic latitudes. Archeological remains are especially 
rich, revealing more than 10,000 years of human activity. 

Kenai Fjords National Park contains 676,000 acres. On the Gulf of 
Alaska near Seward, it is named for the scenic glacier-carved fjords 
along its coast. Above is the Harding Icefield, 1 of 4 major ice caps in 
the United States, from which radiate 34 major glacier arms. Sea lions 
and other marine mammals abound in the coastal waters. 

Cape Krusenstern National Monument, north of Kotzebue on the 
Chukchi Sea, is the single new Alaskan unit of predominantly cultural 
rather than natural significance. Containing 656,685 acres, it is by far 
the largest such area in the System. One hundred fourteen lateral 
beach ridges formed by changing sea levels and wave action display 
chronological evidence of 5,000 years of marine mammal hunting by 
Eskimo peoples. Older archeological sites are found inland. 

Of the 1980 Alaska parks, the smallest is Aniakchak National 
Monument, whose 136,955 acres lie on the harsh Aleutian Peninsula 
southwest of Katmai. It is adjoined by the 466,238-acre Aniakchak 
National Preserve. Their central feature is the great Aniakchak 
Caldera, a 30-square-mile crater of a collapsed volcano. Within the 
caldera are a cone from later volcanic activity, lava flows, explosion 
pits, and Surprise Lake, which is heated by hot springs and cascades 
through a rift in the crater wall. 

ANILCA also designated 13 wild rivers for Park Service adminis- 
tration. Twelve are entirely within parks, monuments, and preserves 
and are not listed as discrete units of the System. Part of the 
remaining one, Alagnak Wild River, lies outside and westward of 
Katmai; it is therefore counted separately. It offers salmon sport 
fishing and Whitewater floating. 

Overall, the size and quantity of the new Alaska parklands is 
matched fully by their superlative quality. While political and eco- 
nomic arguments had been raised against them, few if any challenged 
the inherent scenic, scientific, and cultural merits that made the lands 
so clearly eligible for the National Park System. The System has been 
immeasurably enriched by their inclusion. 



91 



National Park System Additions 1973-1984 



1973 

Dec. 28 Lyndon Baines Johnson Memorial Grove on the Potomac, D. C. 

1974 

March 7 Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area, 

Kentucky and Tennessee (assigned to NPS 1976) 

Oct. 1 Boston NHP, Massachusetts 

Oct. 1 1 Big Cypress NPres, Florida 

Oct. 11 Big Thicket NPres, Texas 

Oct. 26 Clara Barton NHS, Maryland 

Oct. 26 John Day Fossil Beds NM, Oregon 

Oct. 26 Knife River Indian Villages NHS, North Dakota 

Oct. 26 Martin Van Buren NHS, New York 

Oct. 26 Sewall-Belmont House NHS, District of Columbia 

Oct. 26 Springfield Armory NHS, Massachusetts 

Oct. 26 Tuskegee Institute NHS, Alabama 

Dec. 27 Cuyahoga Valley NRA, Ohio 

1975 

Jan. 3 Canaveral NS, Florida 

1976 

March 17 Chickasaw NRA, Oklahoma (incorporated Piatt NP and 

Arbuckle NRA) 

June 30 Klondike Gold Rush NHP, Alaska and Washington 

July 4 Valley Forge NHP, Pennsylvania 

Aug. 19 Ninety Six NHS, South Carolina 

Oct. 12 Fort Benton, Montana 

Oct. 12 Obed WSR, Tennessee 

Oct. 18 Congaree Swamp NM, South Carolina 

Oct. 18 Eugene O'Neill NHS, California 

Oct. 21 Monocacy NB, Maryland (reauthorization and redesignation 

of Monocacy NMP) 

1977 

May 26 Eleanor Roosevelt NHS, New York 

1978 

June 5 Lowell NHP, Massachusetts 

Aug. 15 Chattahoochee River NRA, Georgia 

Aug. 18 War in the Pacific NHP, Guam 

Nov. 10 Delaware NSR, Pennsylvania and New Jersey 

Nov. 10 Edgar Allen Poe NHS, Pennsylvania 

Nov. 10 Friendship Hill NHS, Pennsylvania 

92 



Nov. 10 Jean Lafitte NHP and Preserve, Louisiana (incorporated 
Chalmette NHP) 

Nov. 10 Kaloko-Honokohau NHP, Hawaii 
Nov. 10 Maggie L. Walker NHS, Virginia 
Nov. 10 New River Gorge NR, West Virginia 
Nov. 10 Palo Alto Battlefield NHS, Texas 
Nov. 10 Rio Grande WSR, Texas 
Nov. 10 San Antonio Missions NHP, Texas 
Nov. 10 Santa Monica Mountains NRA, California 
Nov. 10 Thomas Stone NHS, Maryland 

Nov. 10 Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River, Pennsyl- 
vania and New York 

Dec. 1 Aniakchak NM, Alaska— incorporated in legislated Aniakchak 
NM and NPres Dec. 2, 1980 

Dec. 1 Bering Land Bridge NM, Alaska— redesignated a NPres Dec. 
2, 1980 

Dec. 1 Cape Krusenstern NM, Alaska 

Dec. 1 Denali NM, Alaska— incorporated with Mount McKinley NP 
in Denali NP and NPres Dec. 2, 1980 

Dec. 1 Gates of the Arctic NM, Alaska— incorporated in Gates of the 
Arctic NP and NPres Dec. 2, 1980 

Dec. 1 Glacier Bay NM, Alaska— addition to preexisting NM; total 
incorporated in Glacier Bay NP and NPres Dec. 2, 1980 
Dec. 1 Katmai NM, Alaska— addition to preexisting NM, total 
incorporated in Katmai NP and NPres Dec. 2, 1980 
Dec. 1 Kenai Fjords NM, Alaska— redesignated a NP Dec. 2, 1980 
Dec. 1 Kobuk Valley NM, Alaska- redesignated a NP Dec. 2, 1980 
Dec. 1 Lake Clark NM, Alaska— incorporated in Lake Clark NP and 
NPres Dec. 2, 1980 

Dec. 1 Noatak NM, Alaska— incorporated in Noatak NPres Dec. 2, 1980 
Dec. 1 Wrangell-St. Elias NM, Alaska— incorporated in Wrangell-St. 
Elias NP and NPres Dec. 2, 1980 

Dec. 1 Yukon-Charley NM, Alaska— redesignated Yukon-Charley 
Rivers NPres Dec. 2, 1980 
1979 

Oct. 12 Frederick Law Olmsted NHS, Massachusetts 
1980 

March 5 Channel Islands NP, California (incorporated Channel 
Islands NM) 



June 28 Biscayne NP, Florida (incorporated Biscayne NM) 

July 1 Vietnam Veterans Memorial, District of Columbia 

Sept. 9 USS Arizona Memorial, Hawaii 

Oct. 10 Martin Luther King, Jr., NHS, Georgia 

Dec. 2 Alagnak Wild River. Alaska 

Dec. 19 Chaco Culture NHP. New Mexico (incorporated Chaco 

Canyon NM) 

Dec. 19 Salinas NM, New Mexico (incorporated Gran Quivira NM) 

Dec. 22 Kalaupapa NHP. Hawaii 

Dec. 28 James A. Garfield NHS, Ohio 

Dec. 28 Women's Rights NHP, New York 

1982 

Dec. 8 Harry S Truman NHS, Missouri 



94 




•-"'■» 




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Aniakchak National VI 



and National Preserve 



Ideals 
into Reality 



All national parklands are not created equal. Besides the obvious 
physical distinctions between and within the basic types of areas in 
the National Park System— natural and historical, urban and wilder- 
ness, battlefield and birthplace, Arctic and tropical— there are quali- 
tative differences as well. Plainly put, some of the System's 334 areas 
are better than others. 

From the beginning, the National Park Service has officially 
admitted to seeking and acquiring only the most outstanding lands 
and resources, with "national significance" as the primary criterion. 
In a 1918 policy letter to Director Stephen T. Mather, Secretary of 
the Interior Franklin K. Lane clearly articulated this position: "In 
studying new park projects, you should seek to find scenery of 
supreme and distinctive quality or some natural feature so extraordi- 
nary or unique as to be of national interest and importance. You 
should seek distinguished examples of typical forms of world archi- 
tecture; such, for instance, as the Grand Canyon, as exemplifying the 
highest accomplishment of stream erosion, and the high, rugged 
portion of Mount Desert Island as exemplifying the oldest rock forms 
in America and the luxuriance of deciduous forests. 

The national park system as now constituted should not be 
lowered in standard, dignity, and prestige by the inclusion of areas 
which express in less than the highest terms the particular class or 
kind of exhibit which they represent/' 

At its second meeting in May 1936, the Secretary's Advisory Board 
on National Parks, Historic Sites, Buildings, and Monuments approved 
a comparable standard for historical parks prepared by Chief Histo- 
rian Verne E. Chatelain: "The general criterion in selecting areas 
administered by the Department of the Interior through the National 
Park Service whether natural or historic, is that they shall be 
outstanding examples in their respective classes. The number of 
Federal areas must be necessarily limited, and care should be 
exercised to prevent the accumulation of sites of lesser rank." 

Guidelines for evaluating national significance have been prepared 
and refined over the years, with separate criteria being developed for 
areas that are primarily natural, historical, and recreational. The 
versions current at this writing appear in the Service's Management 

96 



Policies. Historical parks should be associated with persons, events, 
or themes of national importance; should encompass structures or 
features of great intrinsic or representational value; or should contain 
archeological resources of major scientific consequence. A natural 
park might be an outstanding or rare example of geologic landform 
or biotic area, a place of exceptional ecological or geological diver- 
sity, a site with a concentrated population of rare plant or animal 
species or unusually abundant fossil deposits, or an outstandingly 
scenic area. In both cases, integrity is vital: a historic place should 
not be so modified, deteriorated, or otherwise impaired as to be 
incapable of communicating its significance; a natural area should be 
"a true, accurate, essentially unspoiled example of natural history." 
The criteria for national recreation areas are modifications of those 
issued by the Recreation Advisory Council in 1963; they stress 
spaciousness and high resource quality, accessibility to urban popula- 
tions, potential for attracting national as well as regional visitation, 
and high projected levels of investment and development warranting 
Federal involvement. 

Almost from the beginning, some additions to the System did not 
measure up to the ideals expressed in the policies and criteria. The 
very next park after Yellowstone, Mackinac Island National Park, 
suffered from lumbering and private incursions during its administra- 
tion by the War Department. Stripped of its timber and the site of a 
new resort for the rich, Mackinac was ceded to the State of Michigan 
in 1895, 20 years after its establishment. Sully's Hill National Park, 
North Dakota, established in 1904, lacked special distinction; it was 
transferred in 1931 to the Department of Agriculture as a game 
preserve. Another early national park that did not measure up to its 
rank, Piatt, bore the designation from 1906 to 1976, when it was 
added to a larger national recreation area. 

A few other places of questionable national significance have been 
admitted to the System over the years and remain in its ranks. Why 
has the System these imperfections? The unsurprising truth is that the 
professionally developed guidelines for evaluating national signifi- 
cance have not always been foremost in the minds of those responsible 
for new parklands. The Service transmits its recommendations on 

Q7 



new area legislation through the Department of the Interior to Con- 
gress, but Congress makes the final decisions. Its perception of public 
sentiment behind a park proposal will tend to outweigh its devotion 
to abstract standards— and quite properly so in a representative 
democracy. A park bill backed by an influential constituency and 
lacking significant outside opposition is thus apt to proceed without 
great regard for the opinions of historians, archeologists, scientists, 
or other professional specialists in the bureaucracy. Once established 
via this process, a park is unlikely to be abolished or demoted to other 
custody. 

Can we blame Congress for any shortcomings in the System, then? 
Note entirely. The Service itself is no ivory tower institution, immune 
from public and political pressures and motivated solely by ideals. It 
is a government bureau dependent on congressional appropriations 
and popular support for its survival and prosperity. From its earliest 
days, Stephen Mather, Horace Albright, and their successors strove 
to expand its public and political constituencies by acquiring more 
parks in more places— natural areas in the East, the military parks 
and other historic sites, parkways, seashores, and urban recreational 
resources. Inevitably, not all the new areas serving new people in new 
political jurisdictions equaled the Yosemites and Grand Canyons. 

At bottom, much of the controversy over what should be acquired 
has stemmed from different perceptions of what the System should 
be. Purists in and outside the Service deplored the addition of such 
natural parks as Shenandoah, which had been cut over and existed in 
a less than primeval state. They and others who equated the System 
with natural preservation saw the influx of historical areas in the 
1930s as diffusing its identity. Both natural and historical park parti- 
sans did not all welcome the parkways, the reservoir-based areas, and 
others added less for intrinsic resource quality than for recreational 
use. Some of these additions, typified most recently by Gateway and 
Golden Gate, tended to be disproportionately demanding of funds 
and manpower at the expense of the other parks— another reason for 
critics to begrudge them. 

Today's System, it is fair to say, is both more and less than it might 
be. That it has edged into certain areas of essentially state and local 
concern was perhaps inevitable, evolving as it did over decades when 
the Federal Government enlarged its role across the board. That its 
quality has sometimes been compromised was surely inevitable, given 
the public and political involvement in its evolution befitting a 
democratic society. All things considered, the wonder is not that the 
System has fallen short of the ideals set for it, but that it has come so 
close. In it are a remarkable representation of the nation's greatest 



98 



natural and historic places and recreational areas of outstanding 
attraction. Not every park is a Yellowstone, not every historic site 
boasts an Independence Hall. But nearly all have resources and values 
that make them something special — even nationally significant. With 
good reason, the National Park System is among America's proudest 
and best loved creations. 



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Affiliated Areas 



As of 1984 there were 30 properties affiliated with but not included in 
the National Park System. Neither owned by the United States nor 
administered by the National Park Service, they became ''affiliated 
areas" upon designation by secretaries of the Interior under the 1935 
Historic Sites Act or by individual acts of Congress. They may 
receive technical or financial assistance in accordance with the 
legislation or cooperative agreements defining their relationship with 
the Service. 

The areas are listed alphabetically here, with the dates of their 
secretarial designation or congressional authorization. Brief descrip- 
tions of each appear in the Service's Index. 

American Memorial Park, Saipan; August 18, 1978 
Benjamin Franklin National Memorial, Pennsylvania; October 25, 
1972 

Boston African American National Historic Site, Massachusetts; 
October 10, 1980 

Cherokee Strip Living Museum, Kansas; October 12, 1976 
Chicago Portage National Historic Site, Illinois; January 3, 1952 
Chimney Rock National Historic Site, Nebraska; August 2, 1956 
David Berger National Memorial, Ohio; March 5, 1980 
Ebey's Landing National Historical Reserve, Washington; Novem- 
ber 10, 1978 

Father Marquette National Memorial, Michigan; December 20, 1975 
Gloria Dei (Old Swedes') Church National Historic Site, Pennsyl- 
vania; November 17, 1942 

Green Springs Historic District, Virginia; December 12, 1977 
Historic Camden, South Carolina; May 24, 1982 
Ice Age National Scenic Trail, Wisconsin; October 3, 1980 
Ice Age National Scientific Reserve, Wisconsin; October 13, 1964 
Iditarod National Historic Trail, Alaska; November 10, 1978 
Illinois and Michigan Canal National Heritage Corridor, Illinois; 
August 24, 1984 

International Peace Garden, North Dakota-Manitoba; October 25, 
1949 

Jamestown National Historic Site, Virginia; December 18, 1940 
Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail, Illinois to Oregon, Novem- 
ber 10, 1978 
McLoughlin House National Historic Site, Oregon; June 27, 1941 

102 



Mary McLeod Bethune Council House National Historic Site, Dis- 
trict of Columbia; October 15, 1982 

Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail, Illinois to Utah; Novem- 
ber 10, 1978 

North Country National Scenic Trail, New York to North Dakota; 
March 5, 1980 

Oregon National Historic Trail, Missouri to Oregon; November 10, 
1978 

Overmountain Victory National Historic Trail, Virginia to South 
Carolina; September 8, 1980 

Pennsylvania Avenue National Historic Site, District of Columbia; 
September 30, 1965 

Pinelands National Reserve, New Jersey; November 10, 1978 
Roosevelt Campobello International Park, New Brunswick; July 7, 
1964 

Saint Paul's Church National Historic Site, New York; July 5, 1943 
Touro Synagogue National Historic Site, Rhode Island; March 5, 
1946 



103 



The National Park System 



San Jua^M^landyif 

ades — 

Olympic • J^> «Lake Chelan 

Klondike q..d Rushi Glacier* 

WASHINGTON 

M^ilint Rainier* 
Fort Ciatsop 



Redwood h 




Point Reyes) 
MuirWoo3sVrH ohn Muir 

Fort Point^j* Eugene O Neill 

• Yosemite 
\ 
• Devils Postpile 



Pinnadi v - » 



Sequoia 



Channel Islands 



Capitol Reel. —v— .Florissant Fossil Heds 

w » I •Black Canyon of the Gunnison 

# Kings«Canyon Cedaf Breaks Bryce Canyon Carjyonlands *Curecanti 

. l^Qeath Valley f7 inrl - * Glen Canyon 

L±> on * • •Natural Bridges 

HovenweepI „ • 

PiDe Snrinn • ~*~""*~»L»«_ ? • Yucc a House • 

Rainbow Brfd$e«f 
Navajo | 

I Aztec Ruins 

Grand Canyon* f •Capiilin Mountain 

Canyon de Chelly I _. _ .. 

' ' | .Chaco Culture 

Santa Monica Mountains V Sunset Crater # «Wupatki .Hupbell Trading Post 



KANSAS 

Fort Larned 

• Bent's Old Fort • 



Fori Sc- 



-n 3^-shua Tree , 



Cabrillo 



Tuzigoot • 
Montezuma Castle • 



• Walnut Canyqpi Bandelier *p eco s 

• *EI Morro 

Petrified Forest 

ARIZONA NEW MEXICO 

# Tonto Salinas • 

Hohokam Pimae 
. *Casa Grande f • Gila Cliff Dwellings 



\ 




\« Saguaro 



Organ Pipe Cactus 

Tumacafe&cjJ* 



• Fiort Bowie 
•^hlricahua 
™ ado rCham'i 



• White Sands 



• Carlsbad Caverns 

"•""". 

Guadalupe Mountains 



TEXAS 



S »Fort Davis 

| 

'. -Rio Grande 

\^ J ~~\f>Amistad 

Big tfrm^i*/ 



• Lyndon B. Johns 



• San Antonio 
Missions 



7j» Padre 
\ f Island 

Palo Alto BattlefFeTae^ 




104 



Acadia 




Saint Croix Island 



Adams 

Boston 

Frederick Law Olmsted 

John Fitzgerald Kennedy 

Longfellow 

Minute Man 



irt Smith 

Brices Cross Roads* 
# Hot Springs^ Tupelo 
Arkansas Post* 



Natchez Trace Parkway 



ALA. 

Hprseshoe Bend • 
MISS. Tilskegee Institute • 




ge/Washmgton Birthplace 
•WjC. Walker 
w a Petersburg^ o^oVonial 
Vr\. • Appomattox^GSiVrt House 
• Booke' T W.ishingtol^ 

way <^\Wright Brothers 
fc^Wort Raleigh 
• Guilford Courthouse../ f Cape Hatteras 
rew Johnson nj p 

Smoky Mountains 

«yv^^Cape Lookout 

owpens . • Moores Creek 

kamanga and Chattanooga \_JB 

Ninety'Six* S.C 

_ /^u . l.^^1 • Congares'Swamp 

ourWn.. #Cha,,aho< **£ eRlve ' 
Martin Luther King. Jr. 



GEORGIA 

•Ocmulgee 
• Andersonville 



_£ Fort Sumter 




{ 



Fort Pulaski 



Big Thicket 



I v: 

Gulf Islands 



JrFort Frederica 

» Cumberland island 
Fort Caroline 

pastillo de San Marcos 
Matanzas 



Canaveral 




Big CyprVis* 



Castle Clinton 

Federal Hall 

Gateway 

General Grant 

Hamilton Grange 

Statue of Liberty 

Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace 

- Arlington House 
Clara Barton 
Ford's Theatre 
Fort Washington 
Frederick Douglass Home 
George Washington Parkway 
Greenbell 

John F. Kennedy Center 
Lincoln Memorial 
Lyndon Baines Johnson 
National Capital Parks 
National Mall 
Piscataway 
Rock Creek 
Sewall-Belmont House 
Theodore Roosevelt Island 
Thomas Jefferson Memorial 
Vietnam Veterans Memorial 
Washington Monument 
White House 
Wolf Trap Farm 



Everglade^ B,sca *" e 



Fort Jefferson < 



105 



The National Park System (continued) 



*, 



?<=£>• 



OO 



Alaska 




Seven national park areas in Alaska have adjoining national preserves, counted 
as separate units of the National Park System. They are: Aniakchak, Denali. 
Gates of the Arctic, Glacier Bay, Katmai, Lake Clark, and Wrangell-St. Elias. 



Guam 



War In the Pacific f/ 



Hawaii 



Puerto Rico and the 
Virgin Islands 



Ci 



USS Arizona Memorial 



Kalaupapa 



t> ^P* Haleakala 



Puukohola Heiai 
Kaloko-Honokohau* 



Pu'uhonua o Honaunau • 




Ssan Juan J 



m Virgin Islands 

• Buck Island Reef 

Christiansted 



Hawaii Volcanoes 



106 



Parks Authorized Before August 25, 1916 




Alaska 




Guam 



Hawaii 



o> 



7S> 



\> 



Puerto Rico and the 
Virgin Islands 



Parks Authorized 1917 to 1933 (in blue) 




Alaska 




Guam 



Hawaii 



Puerto Rico and the 
Virgin Islands 



o. 



?s> 



G> 



LZ>- 



107 



Parks Transferred August 10, 1933 (in blue) 




Alaska 




Guam 



Hawaii 



o. 



G> 



Puerto Rico and the 
Virgin Islands 



Parks Authorized 1933 to 1963 (in blue) 




Alaska 




Guam 



Hawaii 



Puerto Rico and the 
Virgin Islands 



°s> 



G> 



..%• 



Parks Authorized 1964 to 1972 (in blue) 




Alaska 




Hawaii 



<\> 



Puerto Rico and the 
Virgin Islands 



Iv 



S> 



CZ* 



.-v 



Parks Authorized 1973 to 1984 (in blue) 




Alaska 




Hawaii Puerto Rico and the 

Virgin Islands 



~S* 



® 



C25* 



t 



109 



Ind6X Numbers in italics refer to photographs, maps, or illustrations 



Acadia NP 17, 19, 20, 22, 55 
Adams NHS 50, 61 
Advisory Board 48, 73, 80, 
81,96 

Advisory Council on 
Historic Preservation 68 
Agate Fossil Beds NM 65, 
76 

Alagnak Wild River 91, 94 
Albright, Horace M. 18, 
24,44,98 

Alibates Flint Quarries 
NM76 

Allegheny Portage Rail- 
road NHS 67, 76 
American Memorial Park 
102 

Amistad NRA 76 
Anderson ville NHS 32, 67, 
77 

Aniakchak NM and Pres. 
91,93, 95 

Antietam NBS 29, 30, 37, 40 
Apostle Islands NL 70, 77 
Appalachian NST 73, 77 
Appomattox Court House 
NHP 38, 40 
Arches NP 20, 23, 65 
Arkansas Post NMem. 61 
Arlington House, The 
Robert E. Lee Memorial 
27-28,36,40 

Assateague Island NS 69- 
70,76 
Aztec Ruins NM 22 

Badlands NP 20, 23, 47, 83 

BandelierNM20,23,34,40 

Barton NHS, Clara 85, 92 

Bent's Old Fort NHS 51, 61 

Berger NMem., David 102 

Bering Land Bridge 

NPres. 90, 93 

Bethune Council House 

NHS,MaryMcLeod86, 

102 

Big Bend NP 46, 58, 88 

Big Cypress NPres. 83, 92 

Big Hole NB 33, 38, 40 

Bighorn Canyon NRA 76 

Big South Fork NR and 

RA87,92 

Big Thicket NPres. 83, 92 

BiscayneNP65,77,83,94 

Black Canyon of the 

Gunnison NM 23 

Blue Ridge Parkway 53-54, 

55,58 



Boston African American 

NHS 86, 102 
Boston NHP 85, 86, 92; 
and Bunker Hill Monu- 
ment 28, 37 

Brices Cross Roads NBS 
38,40 

Bryce Canyon NP 20, 22, 40 
Buck Island Reef NM 45, 61 
Buffalo NR 72, 78 

Cammerer, Arno B. 43, 47 
CabrilloNM27,33,37,38, 
40 

Canyon de Chelly NM 20, 
23 

Canaveral NS 86-87, 92 
Canyonlands NP 64, 76 
Cape Cod NS 57, 61 
CapeHatterasNS56,57, 
58,79 

Cape Krusenstern NM 91, 
93 

Cape Lookout NS 70, 76 
Capitol Reef NP 43, 58, 65 
Capulin Mountain NM 17 
Carlsbad Caverns NP 20, 
22,34 

Carver NM, George 
Washington 51,59 
Casa Grande NM 13, 16 
Castillo de San Marcos 
NM 33, 39, 40 
Castle Clinton NM 49, 59 
Catoctin Mountain Park 
55-56, 58 

Cedar Breaks NM 35 
Chaco Culture NHP 16, 
86,94 

Chamizal NMem. 67, 74, 76 
Channel Islands NP 43-44, 
59,83,93 

Chatelain, Verne E. 47-48, 
96 

Chattahoochee River 
NRA 87, 92 
Cherokee Strip Living 
Museum 102 
Chesapeake and Ohio 
Canal NHP 51, 55, 59, 67, 
77 

Chicago Portage NHS 102 
Chickamauga and Chat- 
tanooga NMP 29, 37, 40 
Chickasaw NRA 15,16, 
76, 92; and Arbuckle NRA 
87; and Piatt NP 87, 97 
Chimney Rock NHS 102 



Chiricahua NM 40 
Christiansted NHS 60 
Clark NHP, George 

Rogers 27, 37, 67, 76 

Colonial NHP 20, 23, 28, 

30, 40, 54 

Colorado NM 17 

Congaree Swamp NM 83, 92 

Coronado NMem. 60 

Coulee Dam NRA 50, 59 

CowpensNB30,38,40 

CraterLakeNPll,16 

Craters of the Moon NM 

20, 22, 66 

Cumberland Gap NHP 59 

Cumberland Island NS 

70,78 

Curecanti NRA 76 

Custer Battlefield NM 32, 

50,59 

Cuyahoga Valley NRA 80, 

87,92 

Death Valley NM 20, 23, 47 
Delaware NSR 87, 92 
Delaware Water Gap 
NRA 71, 76 
Demaray, Arthur E. 43 
Denali NP and Pres. 89, 
93;andMt.McKinleyNP 
19,22,45 

DeSoto NMem. 60 
Devils Postpile NM 40 
Devils Tower NM 14, 16 
Dickenson, Russell E. 80, 
81-82 

Dinosaur NM 17,45,47 
Douglass Home, Fred- 
erick 51, 61 
Drury, Newton B. 43, 45 

Ebey's Landing NHRes. 

102 

Edison NHS 51, 60, 61 
Eisenhower, Dwight D. 
51; NHS 66, 76 
ElMorroNMH, 16 
Everglades NP 46, 58, 83 
Everhardt, Gary 80 

Federal Hall NMem. 48, 

49,59 

Fire Island NS 69, 76 

Fisher, Walter L. 18 

Florissant Fossil Beds NM 

65,77 

Ford's Theatre NHS 36, 

40,74 



110 



Fort Bowie NHS 67, 76 
Fort Caroline NMem. 60 
Fort Clatsop NMem. 61 
Ford Davis NHS 51, 61 
Fort Donelson NMP 30, 
38,40 

Fort Frederica NM 58 
Fort Jefferson NM 50, 58 
Fort Laramie NHS 50-51, 
59 

Fort Lamed NHS 67, 76 
Fort McHenry NM and 
Historic Shrine 33, 39, 41 
Fort Matanzas NM 39, 41 
Fort Necessity NB 30, 38, 
41 

Fort Point NHS 67, 77 
Fort Pulaski NM 33, 39, 41 
Fort Raleigh NHS 59 
Fort Scott NHS 67, 76 
Fort Smith NHS 51, 61 
Fort Stanwix NM 50, 58 
Fort Sumter NM 50, 60 
Fort Union NM 51, 60 
Fort Union Trading Post 
NHS 76 

Fort Vancouver NHS 51 , 60 
Fort Washington Park, 
33-34, 39, 59 
Fossil Butte NM 65, 78 
Franklin NMem., Benja- 
min 102 

Fredericksburg and Spot- 
svlvania County Battle- 
fields Memorial NMP 30, 
38.41 
Friendship Hill NHS 92 

Garfield NHS, James A. 

85,94 

Gates of the Arctic NP and 

Pres. 90 

Gateway NRA 74-75, 78, 

80, 84, 98 

Gettysburg NMP 29, 30, 

31, 32,37,41 

Gila Cliff Dwellings NM 

34,35,39,41 

Glacier Bay NP and Pres. 

19,22,47.89 

Glacier NP 11, 17,45 

Glen Canyon NRA 56. 61, 

63 

Gloria Dei Church NHS 

102 

Golden Gate NRA 74. 75, 

78,80,98 

Golden Spike NHS48. 51. 61 



Grand Canyon NP 20, 22, 

23, 34, 39; and Grand 

Canyon NM 45, 65; and 

Marble Canyon NM 45, 

65,77 

Grand Portage NM 60 

Grant Teton NP 20, 22, 35, 

44, 60, 74; and Jackson 

Hole NM 35, 44, 45, 47, 

59,60 

Grant, Ulysses S. 26; 

NMem. 27, 36, 49, 50, 61 

Grant-Kohrs Ranch NHS 

67,78 

Great Sand Dunes NM 20, 23 

Great Smoky Mountains 

NP 19, 20, 22, 47, 54 

GreenbeltPark57,60 

Green Springs Historic 

District 102 

Guadalupe Mountains NP 

64,76 

Guilford Courthouse 

NMP 29, 38, 41 

Gulf Islands NS 70, 77 

HaleakalaNP46.61.S<?e 
also Hawaii Volcanoes NP 
Hamilton Grange NMem. 
49,61 

Hampton NHS 48, 60 
Harpers Ferry NHP 51, 59 
Hartzog, Jr., George B. 
62,63,80 

Hawaii Volcanoes NP 17, 
46.61 

Hickel, Walter J. 63 
Historic Camden 102 
Hohokam Pima NM 78 
Hoover, Herbert C. 24, 54; 
NHS 66, 76 

Homestead NM of Ameri- 
ca 58 

Hopewell Village NHS 55, 
59 

Horseshoe Bend NMP 50, 
61 

Hot Springs NP 10, 15, 16 
Hovenweep NM 22 
Hubbell Trading Post 
NHS 76 

Ice Age NST 102 

Ice Age National Scientific 

Reserve 102 

Ickes, Harold L. 45, 46, 

47.49.54 
lditarodNHTl02 



III. & Mich. Canal Nat'l 
Heritage Corridor 102 
Independence NHP 21, 
49,59,60 

Indiana Dunes NL 70, 77 
International Peace Gar- 
den 102 
IsleRoyaleNP20,22,47 

Jamestown NHS 102 
Jefferson, Thomas: 

Memorial 50, 58; National 

Expansion Memorial 

NHS 48, 49, 58 

Jewel Cave NM 34, 39, 41 

John Day Fossil Beds NM 

83,92 

Johnson NHS, Andrew 

32, 50, 58 

Johnson Lyndon B. 45, 62, 

65; Memorial Grove 85, 

92; NHP 66, 77 

Johnstown Flood NMem. 76 

Joshua Tree NM 43, 45, 58 

Kalaupapa NHP 94 
Kaloko-Honokohau NHP 
86,93 

Katmai NP and Pres. 19, 
22,89,93 

Kenai Fjords NP 91, 93 
Kennedy, John F. 45; 
Center for the Performing 
Arts 74, 78; NHS 66, 77 
Kennesaw Mountain NBP 
38,41 

King, Jr. NHS, Martin 
Luther 86, 94 

Kings Canyon NP 11.46,59 
Kings Mountain NMP 28, 
38,41 

Klondike Gold Rush NHP 92 
Knife River Indian Vil- 
lages NHS 86, 92 
Kobuk Valley NP 90-91, 93 
Kosciuszko NMem., 
Thaddeus67,78 

Lafayette NP. See Acadia 
Lafitte NHP and Pres., 
Jean 38. 41, 93; and 
ChalmetteNHP,29.32,37 
Lake Chelan NRA 71, 77 
Lake Clark NP and Pres. 
90,93 

Lake Mead NRA 56, 58 
Lake Meredith RA 76 
Lane, Franklin K. 10.18.96 



111 



Lassen Volcanic NP 17, 

34,39 

Lava Beds NM 20. 22 

Legislation 1 

44,45,47-48. 
62-63, 64, 65- 
72-73,81,87 : 
Lehman Cav 
41 

Lewis and CI 
Lincoln, Abr- 
place NHS 2 
40; Boyhood- 
50,61; Home 
Memorial 26- 
100-101. See 
Theatre. 
Longfellow > 
W.67,78 . 
Lowell NHP 
Lower Saint L 
72,78 



National Capital Parks 6, Petersburg NB 30, 38, 41 

24-25, 36, 41 , 53, 60 Petrified Forest NP 14, 16, 66 

National Cemeteriov 10 19 Pi/*t..-<»l i>««k s NL 70, 76 

tional Re- 



DATE DUE 



•&ft£lfo/W 



"tyt'Vnatsn) 



McFarland, J 

12-13, 18 

Mackinac Ish 

16,97 

McLoughlin ! 

102 

Mammoth Ca 

34,46,47 

Manassas NB 

Marquette NF_ 

102 

Mather, Stepl_ 

96,98 

Mesa Verde I\ 

Minute Man P 

Mission 66 42 

Monocacy NE 

Montezuma C 

14,16 




*_ ,.- 



^Kii^ 



DEMCO 38-297 



Moores Creek 

Mormon Pioneer NH1 103 

Morristown NHP 20, 23, 

30 

Morton, Rogers C.B. 88 

Mound City Group NM 

33,39,41 

Mount Rainier NP 1 1 , 16, 45 

Mount Rushmore NMem. 

25,27,37,59 
Muir,John 10; NHS, 67, 
76; Woods NM 16 

Natchez Trace Parkway 

41, 53-54, 58; and Meri- 
wether Lewis NM 39 



117,39 
>JM22 
158 
ark 61 
^S57,61 
-Ian NHS 85, 92 
»ns6, 10-13, 
35,45-47, 
0-82,96-99 
n Forest 



-lonaunau 
iauNHS78 



ge NM 17 
Ivisory 

69,97 

64-65,77 
P 50, 58 
SR 72, 

ark 25, 41 
,, John D. 

ial Parkway 

iinNPll,17 
-S, Eleanor 



— nklin D. 24, 

\1\ Campo- 
— >nal Park 103; 

50,59 
— !odore 1 1 , 

ice NHS 49, 
— al NHS 66, 

53; Island, 

"ee also 



Ozark NSR 71-72, 76 

Pacific Crest Trail 73 
Padre Island NS 57, 61 
Palo Alto Battlefield NHS 
85,93 

Park Restoration and 
Improvement Program 82 
Pea Ridge NMP 50, 61 
Pecos NM 76 
Pennsylvania Avenue 
NHS 103 

Perry's Victory and Inter- 
national Peace Memorial 
27,37,58 



Sagamore Hill 

Ross Lake NRA 71, 77 

Russell Cave NM 61 

Sagamore Hill NHS 49, 

50,61 

SaguaroNM40,41 

Saint Croix Island IHS 60 

St. Croix NSR 72, 77 

Saint-Gaudens NHS, 

Augustus 67, 76 

Saint Paufs Church NHS 

103 

Salem Maritime NHS 48, 

51,59 



112 




Salinas NM 17, 86, 94 

San Antonio Missions 

NHP93 

Sandburg Home NHS, 

Carl 67, 77 

San Juan Island NHP 76 

San Juan NHS 60 

Santa Monica Mountains 

NRA80,81,87,93 

Saratoga NHP 28, 50, 59 

Saugus Iron Works NHS 

67,77 

Scotts Bluff NM 22 

Seaton, Fred A. 49 

Sequoia NP 11, 16 

Sewall-Belmont House 

NHS 85, 92 

Shenandoah NP 19-20, 22, 

47,54,55,98 

ShilohNMP30,37,41 

Sitka NHP 17 

Sleeping Bear Dunes NL 

70,77 

Springfield Armory NHS 

85,92 

Statue of Liberty NM 25, 

26,33,36,37,39,41 

Stone NHS, Thomas 93 

Stones River NB 30, 38, 41 

Sunset Crater NM 40, 41 

Taft, William H. 11; NHS, 

66,77 

Timpanogos Cave NM 34, 

40,41 

TontoNM34,39,41 

Touro Synagogue NHS 

103 

Truman, Harry S 44; NHS 

85,94 

Tumacacori NM 14, 16 

Tupelo NB 38, 41 

Tuskegee Institute NHS 

86,92 

Tuzigoot NM 59 

Udall, Morris K. 88, 89 
Udall, Stewart L. 47, 62, 63 
Upper Delaware Scenic and 
Recreational River 72, 93 
USS Arizona Memorial 
85,94 

Valley Forge NHP 85, 92 
Van Buren NHS, Martin 

85,92 

Vanderbilt Mansion NHS 

48. 59 




* 



3 210A 032b7 2357 



t imsuuig iimr zy, JU, 
38,41 

Vietnam Veterans Mem- 
orial 94 

Virgin Islands NP 46, 61 
Voyageurs NP 65, 77 

Walker NHS, Maggie L. 

86,93 

Walker, Ronald H. 80 

Walnut Canyon NM 34, 

40,41 

War in the Pacific NHP 

85,92 

Washington NM, Booker 

T.51,61 

Washington, George 24, 

25; Birthplace NM 20, 23; 

Memorial Parkway 33, 36, 

41, 53; Monument 25, 26, 

36,41 

Watt, James G. 82, 85 

Whalen, William J. 81 

Whiskeytown-Shasta- 

Trinity NRA 50, 61 

White House 41 

White Sands NM 20, 23, 55 

Whitman Mission NHS 58 

Williams NMem., Roger 

67,76 

Wilson's Creek NB 50, 61 

Wind Cave NP 16, 34 

Wirth, Conrad L. 42-43, 52 

Wolf Trap Farm Park for 

the Performing Arts 74, 76 

Women's Rights NHP 85, 94 

WrangeU-St. Elias NP and 

Pres.90,93 

Wright Brothers NMem. 27, 

37,39,41 

Wupatki NM 22 

Yellowstone NP 4-5, 10, 16, 

74 

YosemiteNP 10, 11,16,46 

Yucca House NM 22 

Yukon-Charley Rivers 

NPres. 90, 93 

ZionNP17,20,22 



As the Nation's principal 
conservation agency, the 
Department of the Interior 
has responsibility for most 
of our nationally owned 
public lands and natural 
resources. This includes 
fostering the wisest use of 
our land and water re- 
sources, protecting our fish 
and wildlife, preserving the 
environmental and cul- 
tural values of our national 
parks and historical places, 
and providing for the en- 
joyment of life through 
outdoor recreation. The 
Department assesses our 
energy and mineral re- 
sources to assure that their 
development is in the best 
interest of all our people. 
The Department also has 
a major responsibility for 
American Indian reser- 
vation communities and 
for people who live in is- 
land territories under U.S. 
administration. 

National Park Service 

U.S. Department of the Interior 



•fr US. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 1984 O - 448-700 



The National Parks: 
Shaping the System